Conference Program

April 26 - May 2, 2020 | Atlanta, GA, USA

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Filter through this event schedule by selecting relevant days, categories or tracks, if applicable.

  1. PIMA Management (M)

    M1: Keynote

    Speaker: , Domtar
    1. "Conscious Innovation: Leveraging Potential through Creativity and Collaboration"
      Speaker: , Co-Founder and Author, GoodThink
  2. Break

  3. PIMA Management (M)

    M2: Executive Panel

    Speaker: , Domtar
    Speaker: , Solenis
  4. Lunch/Exhibit

  5. Process Control (PC)

    PC1: QCS Controls and Measurement Technology

    Session Chair: , SAPPI
    1. "Continuous Cross Machine Formation by Wavelet Transform Analysis"
      Speaker: , Miami University
      Speaker: , Honeywell International

      A novel approach for continuously monitoring the multi-resolution spectral analysis of the local grammage was performed using a discrete implementation of the continuous wavelet transform. Basis weight CD profiles from different paper machine runs were obtained and transformed into spectral and spatial components so that the size distribution and relative intensity of grammage flocs, were determined as a function of the CD position within the sample. A simulation was developed to introduce the time dimension into the analysis so that variation in the spectral-position analysis could be monitored with MD movement. The analytical method makes use of a non-orthogonal, one-dimensional wavelet transform that uses the second order Gaussian basis wavelet function to detect extrema within the data set. Coupled with data reduction techniques that minimize the effect of discrete features by assuming a fixed statistically stationary window in the in the machine direction of the data set, samples were analyzed to determine the variability that exists in the cross machine direction as a function of time. Local energy spectra representative of the size and spatial distribution of CD features were determined for simulated images and for real cross machine samples known to contain production defects such as formation variability or grammage streaks. By limiting the spectral range of local energy spectra, regions of interest could be created to focus on feature sizes that influence print defects. The utility of the combined methods for application in the assessment and control of paper structural properties is presented.

    2. "Alias Impact on Control Profile"
      Speaker: , International Paper

      In the paper industry, it is well known that cyclical MD disturbances cause false CD patterns that appear in profiles. When acted on by CD controls, these false patterns can excite CD actuators to move and cause the actual profile to degrade by building the inverse image of the alias. This paper will review MD aliasing and show how one-dimensional (1D) MD/CD aliasing can degrade the control performance. More complex two-dimensional (2D) MD/CD aliasing will be introduced and the problems and additional difficulty that it poses. As CD controls typically use a filtered profile, the impact of aliases on the control profile are studied. In most cases a filter reduces the severity of aliasing to the control profile to an acceptable level that permits reasonable control actions that correct true CD variations without causing excessive errors due to aliasing. Three types of aliases 1D MD/CD aliases are identified: stable, moving and repeating. Stable and repeating aliases where the scan time and MD wavelength are harmonics cause special challenges. Futhermore, moving aliases are not benign and also cause challenges, errors in control actions and instability. Two myths for removing MD/CD aliases are debunked. Techniques for avoiding CD control problems caused by aliases are discussed. 1 Dictionary.com defines harmonic as “of, relating to, or noting a series of oscillations in which each each oscillation has a frequency that is an integral multiple of the same basic frequency.”

    3. "MPC for Simple Setup of Midrange and Other Advanced Controls"
      Speaker: Michael Forbes, Honeywell International
      Author: , Honeywell International
      Author: Joyce Choi, Honeywell International

      Multivariable model predictive control (MPC) has demonstrated good performance in both cross-direction and machine-direction applications and is a control strategy of choice in many mills. MPC uses process models to make predictions of future output trajectories based on past and planned input moves. MPC plans an optimal sequence of moves based on a cost function which typically penalizes both output deviations from setpoints and input moves. Since the process model is built into the controller, the movements of all inputs are coordinated to minimize output disturbances due to multivariable interactions. Output deviations and input movements are not the only costs that may be included in the cost function. It is also possible to penalize deviations of process inputs from preferred values, which is useful in several situations including midrange control, where two process inputs can control one output. Examples of midrange control include coarse and fine stock valves for stock flow control or upstream and downstream filler flows. In midrange control the first input makes fast and/or accurate adjustments to keep the process on target while the second input makes slower and/or coarse adjustments that allow the first input to stay near a preferred value. Midrange control can be implemented quickly and easily using an MPC that allows penalties on deviations of inputs from preferred targets. This paper describes midrange control for filler flow addition implemented at a North American fine paper mill. The MPC framework allows the controller to be tuned so that the fast-acting filler flow quickly eliminates disturbances to ash while corrections are also made with the slower acting filler flow so that, in the long term, the fast-acting filler flow can return to a preferred value and ash remains on target. Results from the mill implementation will be given.

  6. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM1: Supplier Experiences with Paper Machine Conversions

    Session Chair: , International Paper
    1. "Necessity Is The Mother of Invention — Forward Thinking Concepts On How To Build A PM For The Future"
      Speaker: , PMP

      During Papercon 2015, I had an opportunity to present a PM conversion project that we complemented in Germany (turning a newsprint PM into a fluting one). It was, I believe, the most challenging speech in my whole career as the audience had its doubts and a vivid discussion took place. In 2019, so far, a couple of PM conversion projects in North America have been recorded. There are also many untapped resources available from the shutting down of PMs that can be relocated, refurbished and reconfigured to produce different paper grades that have growth potential. We might me resistant however the world is in a permanent move and we need to adjust and stay flexible to keep our business running. The main idea of this talk is to share our experience from projects regarding alternative PM rebuilds (PMP Phoenix Concept™ ) in Europe and North America (the re-purposing of assets that are no longer attractive – such as newsprint or heavy containerboard grades). The talk will share an alternative investment strategy in papermaking machinery that have become present in the P&P industry within last 5 years and share hard facts and figures that will be useful to attendees when considering where to spend their capital dollars. PM conversion projects are sophisticated rebuild projects, pretty demanding in the area of a proper risk assessment and logistics however possible. Prior launching an investment, it is essential to conduct deep analysis. The driver will be to achieve a blend of the reasonable investment & technological flexibility understanding that there is a huge push for lightweighting and maintaining a high performance of the final product. Modern hydraulic headboxes, shoe presses and size presses are key technologies. This talk will give examples of how other companies have navigated this strategy and have proven results.

    2. "Keys to Successful Papermaking Conversions"
      Speaker: , Voith Paper

      Global demand for printing and writing paper has changed due to digitization and change in consumer behavior. Generation X (age 38-53) and especially Millennials (age 22-37), and their engagement in e-commerce have driven the demand for board and packaging (B&P) products while printed media has declined. The paper and board industry needs to adjust its manufacturing capacity to follow this trend. Graphic paper machines can be converted efficiently if future grades and the required machine concept have been identified accurately. The level of complexity and cost for the conversion increases by grade. A newsprint or SC machine can be easily converted to corrugating medium. Adding a second ply or size press for linerboard increases the investment cost, in return for higher profitability. The highest cost for converting a machine can be expected for the production of higher quality board grades like Folding Box Board (FBB) or Solid Bleached Sulfite (SBS). The key to a successful machine conversion project is to understand the current installed machine limitations, for example drying capacity imitations of a newsprint or SC machine. Machine calculations for future requirements are important in the beginning of the rebuild project in order to determine the correct rebuild scope. Reusing existing equipment wherever possible will keep cost and rebuild downtime to a minimum. We will present our experience from 3 different machine conversion projects from a low, medium and high investment prospective.

    3. "Paper Machine Grade Conversions"
      Speaker: , Valmet

      The main idea of this presentation is to discuss about considerations and things to look out for based on experiences from paper machine grade conversion projects. Formerly grade conversions have been conducted typically for higher value end products. Nowadays grade conversions are typically concentrated of converting printing grades to packaging grades or to specialty grades. Valmet has gained wide experience of grade conversions and in this presentation key factors to successful conversions are summarized. The change of paper and board making environment is greatly influencing in further development of production lines. Traditionally paper and board making lines have been more far away from each other. Higher production speeds due to light weighting of containerboard has brought these processes closer to each other. In addition, new technologies in wet end and sizing give wider production flexibility compared to conventional paper or board machines. The successful grade conversion requires a market study and plans, how new raw materials are purchased. The concept selection and target dimensioning should take the current premises into account and a sufficient schedule for planning and conversion phases should be in place. The sufficient quality level of new end products is needed to be able to enter the markets and low enough production costs should be secured. The new technologies enable wider possibilities to utilize existing premises with limited modifications and can give a great boost to show the potential along this development. It is important to still have pioneers in this business, who are seeing this change as a possibility. The results of grade conversions are presented in this presentation. The operation results are clearly showing that grade conversions are important alternative to ensure competitiveness of existing production lines.

  7. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PA1: Additive Mixing

    Session Chair: , Kemira
    1. "Inline Static Mixing and Direct Injection Steam Heating for Pulp and Paper"
      Speaker: , Komax Systems, Inc

      INLINE STATIC MIXING AND DIRECT INJECTION STEAM HEATING FOR PULP AND PAPER PAPERCON 2019 ABSTRACT Inline Static mixer for ClO2 Bleach mixing and Process fluids mixing: The Komax Triple Action Mixer provides the highest level of mixing of any static mixer providing Two by Two Division, Cross Current/ Impingement mixing and Back mixing which produces very high mixing efficiency in a short lay length with low pressure losses. The Komax Chlorine Dioxide bleach mixing system utilizing the triple action design is now an established and reliable technology used by modern mills worldwide. The "Triple Action Mixer" creates back mixing which produces the high shear that is needed to separate the pulp fibers. Fluidization of the pulp also occurs, allowing excellent chemical contacting which reduces chemical usage. Komax Inline steam heater: Starch Cooking & Low to Medium Consistency Pulp stock heating The Komax Inline steam heater has gained reputation for solving difficult Inline heating requirements in pulp and paper mills around the globe. With minimal noise and vibration, handle high turn up and turn down ratios, smooth steam flow path with no sudden directional changes and an open mixing structure guaranteeing free flow of pulp stock and steam with minimal pressure drop. Komax steam heater uses a specialized mixing module which consists of six equal diameter cylindrical cavities mounted symmetrically about the main pipe axis. Each cavity consists of single helical mixing element, with all mixing elements having the same sign of twist. The stock and steam combination emerges from each cavity violently rotating, with all rotations in the same direction. This produces many impingement mixing zones at the exit of the module and complete mixing occurs, producing a truly uniform stock temperature.

    2. "Fractionating — New Reveals of Stock Retention Mechanisms with Optimized Use of and Mixing of Additives in Paper and Board Production"
      Speaker: , Valmet
      Author: , Solenis
      Author: Jouni Matula, Wetend Technologies Ltd
      Author: Tommi Niskanen, Valmet

      Modern retention chemical systems are quite complex containing many components according the needs of produced grades or process. Dosing of different additive components is typically based on online white water consistency, water removal etc. measurements. Essential part of chemicals reactions in pulp suspension is efficient mixing of chemical at right moment. A set of tests were done to see function of retention chemicals with Valmet Fractionator – automated tube flow fractionator and fiber imagining technology. Results of tests showed that retention systems performance can be differentiated with fractionating and fiber imagining technology. Results were seen in many different measurements like fractions, flocks fiber width. This opens a new sight for observing chemicals performance and optimal dosing. The phenomena can be exploited most efficiently when the chemicals are brought to contact with stock just before dewatering by efficient mixing. Damage of tiny flocks is avoided and flock optimal flock structure will be maintained and controlled. Results showed that new and unique approach can be used to reveal new findings in retention chemical mechanisms in furnish and utilize the concept to develop the process further and to optimize efficiency.

    3. "Development of additive transfer and dosing system with straight forward steps improves cleanliness, quality and runnability"
      Speaker: Jouni Matula, Wetend Technologies Ltd

      Development of additive transfer and dosing system with straight forward steps improves cleanliness, quality and runnability Today there are new effective flash mixing methods for chemicals applied into papermaking processes where several chemicals and additives can be brought to the process area close to the dewatering and forming section between machine screen and the headbox. The novel advantageous concept sets new quality requirements for supporting sub processes like chemical transfer systems to make the best out of it with excellent runnability. Fillers, chemicals, filtrates or water that are inserted into the process to post-screen location go directly through headbox to the forming section and to the end product. Thus a good cleanliness of the whole part of the dosing process is a must to guarantee cleanliness of end product and trouble free runnability. Additive quality and stability is also very important and essential. With conventional systems scaling on surfaces, dirt build up, lumps and fiber spinning and stabling and happens easily. Conditions how to prepare, transfer and dose additives can be evaluated and updated to meet good runnability and cleanliness target. This results to a clean overall process and good runnablity and net efficiency of production. Problem findings from running production plants will be presented together with new developed system improvements and guidelines to audit and develop the process. Dirt build cases, transfer piping set-up, pumping, flushing cleaning and filtering concepts describe straight forward practices how to maintain or meet the cleanliness and good runnability targets

  8. NETInc (N)

    N1: State of Industry & Keynote

    Session Chair: Seshadri Ramkumar, Texas Tech University
    1. "Introduction"
      Speaker: Seshadri Ramkumar, Texas Tech University
    2. "Advanced Textiles with Nonwovens in the U.S. Market"
      Speaker: , IFAI
    3. "Nonwovens and Advanced Textiles Innovations to Commercialization Pathway"
      Speaker: , First Line Technology
  9. Recycled Paperboard Tech Association (RPTA)

    RPTA1: Technologies to Address Contaminants in Recycled Fiber Streams

    Session Chair: , WestRock
    1. "Innovative De-Trashing System Designs for OCC / Mixed Waste Pulpers"
      Speaker: , Andritz

      Pulp and paper de-trashing systems have been in service for years. Increases in productivity and raw material contaminants are some of the issues the recycle industry is facing currently. There are many reasons why OCC and Mixed Waste recycling plants are operating with undersized de-trashing systems on their LC Pulpers. Current recycling plants have increased capacity beyond their original system design. Mills are substituting more-and-more Mixed Wastepaper (MW) for OCC; and, in some areas of the country, the trash levels in their OCC supply has increased. The Challenge of handling all recycle papers with higher amounts of contaminants has driven many innovations in the pulp and paper de-trashing technologies. New recycle mills have been incorporating these technologies into their system design. When the Pulper Detrashing system is overloaded, it cannot efficiently remove all trash that comes in with all raw material furnish. The trash concentration in the Pulper increases substantially, which results in excessive equipment wear. Less pulper turnovers and debris degradation as well. Wet strength materials and the increase in over-all debris and plastic content has changed the stock preparation process. In a way that requires more efficient and reliable de-trashing systems, while reducing the use of chemicals used to help breakdown raw material. A number of manufactures in the pulp and paper industry have designed innovative solutions in regards to de-trashing, and trash overloading issues. There is a variety of Detrashing system options available on the market. Not only in respect to the equipment design, but also in respect to their operational concept. This presentation will cover the options, and explain the differences between them.

    2. "Re-Pulping Highly Contaminated Recovered Papers"
      Speaker: , Kadant Black Clawson

      Kadant is a global leader in recycled fiber re-pulping systems and offers many styles of pulpers and detrashing systems tailored to each unique client demand. Most recently, comingled collection has increased the contaminant levels in most recovered paper grades and put a lot of pressure on recycled paper producers.This paper discusses progress made on the continuous lights removal detrashing system and available options for brown and mixed paper repulping systems and their relative advantages.

    3. "Boost Your Fine Screen Performance"
      Speaker: , Kadant Black Clawson

      Kadant presented and launched the Boostek in 2017 and now has over forty installations. This paper will provide an update on the technology and commercial use of this innovative technology that is retrofittable to almost any installation, and particularly applicable to stock prep and recycle applications. The unit can be installed on either the accept and/or reject line of any pressure screen, depending on requirements, to improve the performance of the screen; it is easily installed and provides surprising results in terms of energy consumption, fiber losses, sticky removal efficiency, and capacity.

  10. International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC)

    IPPC1: Measuring the Mechanical Response of Fibers, Paper and Board

    Session Chair: Artem Kulachenko, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    1. "Welcome and Overview"
    2. "Transverse Viscoelastic Properties of Cellulosic Fibers Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy"
      Speaker: , Graz University of Technology
      Author: , Graz University of Technology
      Author: Christian Teichert, Graz University of Technology
      Author: Ulrich Hirn, Graz University of Technology

      Dynamic loading is very common during printing, converting and some end-use scenarios of paper. Mechanical simulations of paper converting and end-use processes are becoming an increasingly relevant tool in the paper converting industry. Therefore, it is of considerable interest to characterize the time dependency of the mechanical properties of single pulp fibers. The viscoelastic behavior of single pulp fibers, especially in the transverse direction of the fibers, has not been quantified yet. One reason is that it is still difficult to access the fiber transverse mechanical properties experimentally. On the other hand, it must be considered that pulp fibers have not only anisotropic properties, but also exhibit a very rough surface due to their hierarchical structure. This is crucial for sample probing on the nanoscale like in atomic force microscopy (AFM) and can cause uncertainties in measurements due to not well-established contact between the probe and the fiber surface. For this reason, an AFM method was developed to overcome the limitations due to surface roughness of the pulp fibers and to provide comparable results at different relative humidity (RH) and in water. The method is based on creating a defined fiber surface by a controlled plastic deformation before the measurement. The evaluation of the experimental data combines contact mechanics and viscoelastic models which consist of springs and dashpots in series or parallel describing elastic and viscous behavior, respectively. Here, it will be demonstrated that the so-called Generalized Maxwell model yields reasonable results for single pulp fibers at five different RH values and in water. The moisture changes lead to a steady decrease of the viscoelastic properties with increasing RH. Especially in water, the viscoelastic behavior shows a pronounced decrease, proving that the interaction of pulp fibers in water is completely different than at varying RH levels.

    3. "On the torsion method for measurement of out-of-plane shear properties"
      Author: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Speaker: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: Anton Hagman, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: Samuel Pendergraph, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden

      Paper and paperboard being a laminar porous composite is particularly susceptible to out-of-plane shear deformations. The out-of-plane shear properties (including combined normal loading) of paperboards and liners are important, both from a material characterisation and design perspective (e.g., when end use applications necessitate bending). One of the challenges in the measurement of these properties is the resolution of deformation measures in the through-thickness (ranging in tenths of a millimetre) direction. Another is the practical difficulty of fastening of the test samples (i.e., effective transfer of stresses to the paperboard without altering its properties). Other challenges include mechanical instability - immediately after peak strength is reached – which corresponds to the elastic energy build up precluding the measurement of post-peak behaviour etc. The use of torsional loading for measurement of out-of-plane shear properties in paperboards and liners is uncommon. Three decades ago, Waterhouse et al. used this method to determine the moduli of paperboards. However, the test method has not been widely implemented beyond this study. One reason is due to the inability of the method to resolve the anisotropy of shear properties in the through-thickness direction. However, if the anisotropy in the out-of-plane directions is insignificant (which is often the case for out-of-plane shear moduli), the torsional loading provides an excellent option for overcoming post-peak instability. Furthermore, torsional loading can also provide a straightforward way of introducing out-of-plane normal loads for combined loading scenarios. In addition, earlier studies have elucidated a linear correlation between the ratio of out-of-plane moduli and in-plane tensile strengths. These relationships provide a means of determining the moduli if there is significant out-of-plane anisotropy. We also address the most common issue arising out of gluing the test samples, i.e., glue penetration, with the use of an elastomer (cross-linked poly dimethyl1 siloxane (PDMS)).

    4. "Stiffness and Strength Properties of Five Paperboards and Their Moisture Dependency"
      Speaker: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: Sören Östlund, KTH Royal Institute of Technology

      Five folding box boards made on the same paperboard machine have been analyzed. The paperboards were from the same product series but had different grammage (235, 255, 270, 315, 340 g/m2), and different bending stiffness. The paperboards are normally used to make packages, and since the bending stiffness and grammage varies the packages performance will be different. Finite element simulations can be used to predict these differences. However, the elastic-plastic properties then need to be known. For efficient determination of the three-dimensional properties in MD, CD and ZD, it is proposed that the whole paperboard should be characterized with the following tests: in-plane tension, ZD tension, shear strength profiles and two-point bending. The elastic-plastic properties have with the proposed setups been determined at different relative humidity (20, 50, 70 and 90 % RH), and the mechanical properties have been evaluated as function of moisture ratio. The results showed a linear relation between mechanical properties and moisture ratio for each paperboard. The data was then normalized with data for standard climate (50 % RH) and investigated as a function of moisture ratio. The results indicated that the normalized mechanical properties for all paperboards coincided along one single line and could therefore be expressed as a linear function of moisture ratio and two constants. Consequently, the study indicates that it is possible to obtain the mechanical properties of a paperboard, by knowing the structural properties for the preferred level of RH and the mechanical property for standard climate (50 % RH and 23 °C).

  11. PIMA Management (M)

    M3: Young Professionals Panel: Setting the Pace for a Sustainable Future

    1. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Solenis
    2. "TBA"
    3. "TBA"
    4. "TBA"
    5. "TBA"
  12. Coating & Graphic Arts (CGA)

    CGA1: Setting the Stage for Sustainability

    Session Chair: , Encapsys
    1. "Biodegradable Paper-based Coffee Cups: Current Progress and Outlook"
      Speaker: , Agilis Chemicals, Inc
      Author: , A2K Consultants LLC

      More than 136 million Americans drink from an out-of-home (OOH) coffee cup each day. As a result, more than 200 billion paper coffee cups are thrown away in the USA every year. The growth in coffee consumption and related specialty hot and cold drinks is driven by the global increase in cash-rich, time-poor consumers who want OOH food and drinks on the go. Sadly, only 1 in 400 coffee cups are recycled because they are made of a difficult-to-recycle mix of paper and plastic. In addition, recovery of used coffee cups, especially in the United States, is low due to the limited availability of collecting, sorting, and composting facilities. A fossil based plastic-coated paper cup takes more than 20 years to decompose, all the while contributing to the pollution of our land, rivers, and oceans.

    2. "Impact of Multi-layer Coating Technology on Convertibility in Renewable Paperboard Packaging Beverage Application"
      Speaker: , UMV Coating Systems
      Author: , UMV Coating Systems
      Author: Magnus Lestelius, Karlstad University
      Author: Lars Järnström, Karlstad University

      To investigate the impact of multilayer barrier dispersion coating technology for the paperboard packaging application of cup stock, we have studied the performance of a commercially available dispersion coatings. The research question we addressed was the capacity and reasons for multilayer coatings performance with respect to water barrier and performance in creasing and sealability. Previously, it has been shown that multilayer coatings provide an efficient solution to achieve improved barrier properties while maintaining a low coat weight. This will be advantageous in a sustainability perspective as both materials usage and energy usage can be reduced. We have now addressed convertability and end use performance, by pilot coating tests using to commercially available coating products on cup stock paperboard material. Water resistance, creasability and sealability were measured. As our prime interest lies in understanding the potential of the multilayer concept, we have also determined wetting and mechanical performance of the coated packaging material. Optical microscopy was used to further analyze the damage inflicted by the converting operations, to understand the link to coating structure and properties. , Results show that the coating dispersions can be processed to perform at a desired level for the intended application using the multilayer coating concept. Impact of defects was reduced as the number of layers increased and the resilience to the converting operations was deemed favorable. The material properties of the coating layers produces a slight, but significant, difference in damage evolution upon creasing and sealing, which we consider to be linked to inherent material properties and the interaction with the substrate.

    3. "Nanocellulose and Polylactic Acid Based Multilayer Coatings for Barrier Applications"
      Speaker: , Åbo Akademi University
      Author: , Åbo Akademi University
      Author: Tiffany Abitbol, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: Agne Swerin, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: , Tampere Universtiy of Technology
      Author: , Tampere University of Technology

      Recent years have seen an increased interest towards utilizing bio-based and bio-degradable materials for barrier packaging applications. Most of the above said materials, usually have certain shortcomings that discourage their adoption as a preferred material of choice. Nanocelluolse falls into such category. It has excellent barrier against grease, mineral oils and oxygen, but poor tolerance against water vapor, which makes it unsuitable to be used at high humidity. Also, nanocellulose’s high viscosity and yield stress at low solids content, and poor adhesion to substrates creates additional challenges during high-speed processing. Polylactic acid (PLA) is another potential candidate which has reasonably high tolerance against water vapor, but rather poor barrier against oxygen. This work explores the possibility to combine both these materials, and process them as thin-multilayer coatings onto a paperboard. A custom built slot-die was first used to coat either microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) or cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) onto a pigment coated baseboard in a continuous process. They were subsequently coated with PLA using a pilot scale extrusion coater. The final coatings thus produced were characterized for their barrier properties and adhesive strength. Cationic starch pre-coating and corona treatment improved the adhesion at nanocellulose/baseboard and nanocellulose/PLA interfaces, respectively. Water vapor transmission rate for nanocellulose+PLA coatings remained lower than the control PLA coating, even at a high relative humidity of 90% (38 oC). The multilayer coating had 96% lower Oxygen transmission rate compared to just PLA coated baseboard and heptane vapor transmission rate reduced by 98% in comparison to baseboard. Grease barrier for nanocellulose+PLA coatings increased by 5-fold compared to nanocellulose alone and 2-fold compared to PLA alone. This approach of processing nanocellulose and PLA into multiple layers utilizing slot-die and extrusion coating in tandem, has the potential to produce a barrier packaging paper that is both 100% bio-based and bio-degradable.

  13. Break

  14. Papermaking Fundamentals (PF)

    PF1-PA2: Filler Composites

    Session Chair: , IMERYS
    1. "Substituting Pulp for Filler is Increasingly Attractive for Papermakers"
    2. "Enhancement of Paper Strength by Bio-based Composite Fillers"
    3. "Filler Co-flocculation with Cellulose Micro Fibrils — A Novel Predictive Method"
  15. Recycled Paperboard Tech Association (RPTA)

    RPTA2: Improving Recycled Paperboard Quality

    Session Chair: , WestRock
    1. "Expanding Strength Agent Capabilities and Performance Using a Novel Dry Chemistry"
      Speaker: , Nalco Water
      Author: , Nalco Water
      Author: Rob Lowe, Nalco Water
      Author: Weiguo Cheng, Nalco Water
      Author: , Nalco Water

      Developing dry strength is essential to the successful production of paper, particularly in board and packaging grades. However, use of conventional solution polymer strength agents can be challenging due to logistical, cost, shelf life, and regulatory limitations. To address these challenges, a strength agent in the form of a dry powder has been developed, specifically formulated for the recycled board and packaging industry. Use of this powder strength aid can simplify chemical logistics and storage, promote safety and sustainability, and open new on-machine application strategies. In addition, this chemistry has been shown to be effective at building strength and promoting retention in recycled board furnishes in multiple regions, representing a range of different fiber sources and wet end conditions; strength increases of over 15% have been observed, along with production and efficiency gains. Results from laboratory studies and machine trials will be presented.

    2. "How to Affect Sheet Smoothness in the Press Section"
      Speaker: , Andritz Fabrics and Rolls
    3. "Hollow Sphere Pigments to Optimize Coating Performance"
      Speaker: , The Dow Chemical Company

      Hollow sphere pigments (HSPs) were originally developed for gloss and smoothness in coated paper applications. With their unique voided structure, HSPs are also excellent insulators in thermal paper coatings. They are now used in a far reaching range of end uses including paints, sunscreens, white inks, and leather finishes for their inherent opacity. HSPs improve the efficiency of TiO2 or can fully replace the TiO2 in paperboard coatings while maintaining critical performance properties. By introducing encapsulated air voids, HSPs contribute directly to coating opacity and brightness. The degree to which the brightness and opacity are enhanced is dependent upon the particle size of the HSP, its void volume, the inorganic pigments used, and the type and degree of finishing.

  16. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM2: Setting the Pace Through Conversions and Optimization - Keynote & Kick-off Roundtable

    Session Chair: , International Paper
    1. "A Survey of Global Paper Machine Conversions"
      Speaker: , Fisher International

      Fisher International’s Matt Elhardt, will review the current landscape and recent history of paper machine conversions. Topics addressed will include: 1.) Who’s converting today? Where? Into what grades? 2.) What lessons have owners learned from conversions? 3.) What might be next for conversions?

    2. "Kick-off Roundtable — Setting the Pace through Conversions and Optimization"
      Speaker: , International Paper

      This kick-off roundtable will follow the track keynote address by Matt Elhart from Fisher International. We will have discussion with the audience about the key considerations that the participants have encountered when working on paper machine conversion or optimization projects.

  17. Process Control (PC)

    PC2: New Technologies for Web Inspection

    Session Chair: , Event Capture Systems Inc
    1. "Real-Time Paper and Paperboard Quality Analysis and Classification Based on Paper Formation or Surface Formation in Web Inspection System"
      Speaker: , ABB
      Speaker: , ABB
      Author: Seppo Riikonen, ABB

      Higher demands for paper product quality set new requirements for more advanced machine vision technologies to be utilized in Web Inspection System (WIS) for analyzing paper product properties during the product making process. Both visual and structural paper web properties need to be analyzed, preferably covering a full 100% of the web, to guarantee the required product quality. Paper formation and surface formation are important paper properties, which can be used for further analyzing many other paper properties like printability, strength, and paper surface appearance. Optical transmission measurement can be used for analyzing paper product “look through� formation, which reveals the fiber distribution and clusters of fibers i.e. flocs of a sheet of paper. Accepted formation usually requires an adequate uniformity of fiber distribution, which improve printability and strength of a paper product. Optical reflection measurement can be utilized for surface appearance analysis. Uneven unprinted paper product surface is caused for example by dirt on the surface, surface reflectance variations, surface topography variations, coating variations, or white top liner variations. In printed products the printing quality variations can be observed as mottling, which can be defined as undesired unevenness in observed print density. All of the above mentioned measurement cases can be handled by our new real-time machine vision methods, which utilize elements of artificial intelligence (AI) for analysis and classification of paper product qualities. These real-time elements include for example streaming video statistical feature extraction, streaming video corrections based on unsupervised learning, formation feature extraction, formation pattern extraction, modeling and recognition, unsupervised normal product quality learning, supervised paper making process failures learning and product quality exception detection. In this paper we show how our new machine vision methods can be used for real-time full web paper product quality monitoring, analysis and classification in different production cases.

    2. "New Machine Vision Applications for Paper Industry"
      Speaker: , Valmet
      Author: , Valmet
      Speaker: Todd Radabaugh, Valmet

      Traditionally in paper industry, machine vision systems have been used for monitoring the state of the process and the quality of the product. Those systems are known as web monitoring systems (WMS) and web inspection systems (WIS). Valmet PQV combines both of these functions in one common system. Additionally, in several locations at a mill, closed circuit tv (CCTV) systems may be used for monitoring locations which are difficult to reach or just for general awareness what is happening in separate locations in the mill. Typically, however, there is no connection between these two separate systems. On the other hand, linking these two systems together, today it is possible to also monitor automatically different parts of the process. Further by combining the image data with other automation and process data which is available from different mill automation systems, and making cross analysis with a new neural network (DNN) approach, it is possible to make predictions of possible deviations in the paper making process and product quality, basically offering core knowledge that only experienced paper makers possess. Ultimately this leads to tremendous help for papermakers to foresee how to optimize process and product quality to desired level and to reduce remarkably machine down-time. These kinds of tools have evolved enormously within past 5-10 years that we have now used in a machine vision domain, Because of constant information overload from several systems in a modern operator room, these significant key performance indicators (KPI) can be displayed to users in one dashboard where most significant changes in process and quality only when needed. To achieve this, state of the art processing hardware and, more significantly, state of the art software combined with process knowledge are needed.

    3. "Surface Printability Measurement for Paper and Board"
      Speaker: , Pintaworks

      Camera technology has been mostly used for defect detection at the dry end of the paper machine. Besides typical QCS measurements and defect data for the quality of the paper or board, topography plays a major role in the final quality for the printed surface of liquid packaging. Without an online or laboratory measurement of the topography, papermakers cannot always predict the final print quality of the paper or board. Wb printability measurement predicts the actual printability of the substrate using an on-line scanning camera for topography measurement. This paper will focus on the results from an installation in the Nordic region as well as with a European reference point. This paper will focus on the Wb printability index provided by the scanning camera giving papermakers a measurement of the print quality before it undergoes the expensive process of PE-coating.

  18. Coating & Graphic Arts (CGA)

    CGA2: UV and Digital Ink Innovations

    Session Chair: , Verso Corporation
    1. "A Study of the Impact of the Various Processing Steps Used in the Conversion of Inkjet-Printed Commercial Papers to Deinked Pulp"
      Author: , Western Michigan University
      Author: , Western Michigan University

      Deinking of printed paper materials has become a concern in modern paper recycling streams due to new printing and converting technologies which can introduce challenges to the traditional deinking processing steps. One such method is INGEDE Method 11. It was developed to simulate the deinking of offset printed mechanical fiber (newsprint), including supercalendered (SC) and light-weight coated (LWC) paper grades. A limitation of Method 11 is that it incorporates single-loop flotation as the primary processing step for deinking. Another method that is used was developed by Western Michigan University (WMU) for its Recyclable Logo Certification – Towel & Tissue Application. This method was modeled after deinking operations used for fast food packaging and graphic paper (bleached chemical papers). This test method does a good job of predicting deinkability of bleached chemical recycled fiber using two loop flotation, bleaching, washing and dispersion, which are processing steps that are commonly used in North American recycle mills. The objective of this study is to compare INGEDE Method 11 to WMU’s test protocol and to demonstrate that a two-loop deinking process with flotation, bleaching, washing and dispersion will achieve excellent deinkability performance compared to a single-loop flotation test on uncoated inkjet-printed papers. This comparison will demonstrate that there are other deinking tests besides INGEDE Method 11 which simulate production deinking operations. It will also demonstrate that a two-loop deinking test with bleaching and washing better predicts deinkability of uncoated printed paper than the single-loop flotation test. Comparisons will also be made to previous tests conducted at WMU on papers printed using liquid electrophotography, which also demonstrated successful deinking in a two-loop pilot-scale test.

    2. "New Generation of White Surface Containerboard Enabled by Novel Pigments Featuring Excellent Printability in Flexo Printing and Inkjet Marking"
      Speaker: , Omya International
      Author: , Omya International AG

      The wide performance range of mechanical properties, light-weighting, its contribution to circular economy brings corrugated board into the focus of packaging industry. Parallel to the desire to influence customers in their buying decision at the POS, this also boosts the demand for more packaging solutions with high-quality appearance from the brand-owner side. With regards to white-top and coated white-top liner grades, the availability of raw of white fibers at reasonable quality and costs, is adding pressure on packaging producers to develop alternatives to circumvent the current dependence on dwindling resources. Manufacturers of such grades strive to meet the increasing market demands on product properties, next to good machine runabilty and keep up on high machine efficiency rates. In converting, nowadays white-top linerboards are printed mainly in water-based flexo. In case of coated white-top products with high-quality images, this is usually confined to an off-line process of printing and converting with printing presses, incorporating a drying step between the individual printing unit. In contrast, uncoated products as a majority are printed in-line (printing and converting) by using a wet-on-wet impression without intermediate drying. A possible direction is to develop a dedicated coating-concept for recycled fiber substrates. However, several uncertainties in the ability of such a coating-concept to achieve all the paper properties, print performance and cost-effectiveness, has hindered any success on the market so far. The challenges in respect to wet-on-wet flexo printing without intermediate drying, can be mastered by appropriately designed absorption properties of the liner coating. In numerous curtain coating trials and full-scale printing trials, the proposed solution was successfully tested and confirmed. European containerboard manufacturer Saica implemented the concept in 2018. The novel pigment coating concept discussed, it opens up the possibility to produce a white-top liner product without the need for white fiber.

    3. "TBA"
  19. International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC)

    IPPC2: Moisture Transport in Tissue and Paper

    Session Chair: Ulrich Hirn, Graz University of Technology
    1. "Measurement of the Dynamics of Fluid Sorption for Tissue Papers"
      Speaker: , Lodz University of Technology
      Author: Jean-Francis Bloch, Grenoble INP
      Author: Pawel Pelczynski, Lodz University of Technology

      The main feature of tissue papers is their ability to absorb liquids. Characterization of liquid sorption and its spreading in a tissue paper is however difficult. Indeed, paper materials possess a non-homogeneous internal structure and rough surfaces. Depending on the localization and the quantity of liquid deposits on its surface, the penetration and the flow may differ. The absorption phenomenon in heterogeneous porous materials is hence complex and is still not fully explained. Flow characterization is the first aim towards a better understanding of the influence of main structural and chemical factors. Measurement methods are currently used such as water-absorption time and water-absorption capacity using basket-immersion test do not provide information about dynamic interaction between paper and liquid. Most of the current test methods are static or need a long time to establish the permanent regime. The aim of the presented research was to develop an experimental device and its associated analysis to measure and characterize the dynamics of liquid sorption. The system, named eXtended Liquid Penetration Analyzer (XLPA), was built for data acquisition in the very first milliseconds until the reach of permanent state. Image analysis was then used as a tool for evaluation the dynamic behavior of paper-liquid interaction. Based on the obtained results, it was established that the measuring device associated to the image analysis, make it possible to quantitatively evaluate the dynamics of liquid sorption for tissues and quantify their differences. The direct image analysis and the co-occurrence matrix allow to characterize both the flow and its main characteristics, such as anisotropy, and the local areas of non-homogeneity of absorption due, for example, to paper structural heterogeneities. Examples will illustrate the potential of our device to characterize the kinetics of tissue absorption.

    2. "Mesoscale Liquid Absorption Properties of Towel Papers"
      Speaker: , Miami University
      Author: , Miami University

      For most tissue and towel products the interaction with liquids, especially aqueous solutions, is one of the most significant characteristics. The rate of wetting, holding capacity, spreading of liquid within the structure, while maintaining strength, all contribute to the ranked quality of the product. Standard tests have been developed to quantify performance and to assist in product design for improvement. This investigation explored the fundamental interactions of liquids with the web structure at scales from 10-5 to 10-2 meters, i.e. dimensions of fibers and features, and quantified the behavior of various retail towel products formed using different processes. The wetting of liquids, by itself, is a complex interaction of surface energetics and structural geometry that for sparse fibrous webs is not simply modeled by capillary transport theories. The heterogeneity of the structure, the existence of crevasses formed by creping and fiber alignment, and deflection of the fibers and structure in the Z-direction, all contribute to anomalous wetting behavior. This paper describes the results of experiments that combine precise characterization of the structure with measurement of the in-plane spreading of small volumes (2 to 5µl) of liquids under dynamic and steady state conditions. Web density/porosity, distribution of mass, fiber orientation and engineered features were mapped within 10 mm regions of interest using 2D and 3D radiographic imaging and non-contacting profilometry. The spreading of water and aqueous solutions was recorded by video imaging with mid-infrared reflectance. The advancing rate of the fluid front and the wetted area were analyzed considering structural properties. The experiments examined the response of the samples to a range of continuous rates of injection (<1 mL/s) and the spreading of the volume after the total volume has been delivered. Considerable differences exist between samples formed using the conventional wet pressing and the through air drying processes.

    3. "A Novel Transport - Reaction Model for the Estimation of Moisture Sorption, Diffusion and Chemical Reaction in Biomaterials Using 3D X-Ray CT Images and Raman Spectroscopy"
      Speaker: , Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering
      Author: , University of Minnesota
      Author: Bandaru V Ramarao, SUNY ESF
      Author: Feng Xu, Beijing Forestry University

      Porous bio-based materials such as wood and paper have a complex internal porous structure that has a significant influence on the efficiency of further conversion processes, the properties of the materials synthesized and their end-use applications. The process of conversion of plant biomass to other useful products is heavily dependent on our understanding of the topochemical structure of plant cell walls and its influence on the reaction and transport properties. The topochemical changes in the plant cell walls during pretreatment are mapped using Raman spectroscopy. The 3D structure of plant cell walls are visualized using X-ray computed tomography. Using the actual 3D structure and topochemical distribution, a novel transport-reaction model based on a hybrid random walk is used to provide further insight into the pretreatment process. The diffusive transport of reactants is mdeled used a hybrid random walk and stochastic dynamic approach. The transport and reaction in the plant cell wall is modeled based on the probability of reaction and the ratio of diffusivities between the pore spaces and cell wall. This stochastic dynamic approach keeps track of the spatial concentration of both the cell wall components and the reagent used for pretreatment in real time. This model can also be extended to 3D images obtained from TEM-CT. Additionally, changes in structural properties such as porosity, specific surface area and geometric tortuosity can be evaluated from the 3D images. Thus, using a combination of characterization techniques, it is possible to correlate the changes in 3D cell wall architecture and topochemistry of the plant cell walls with the transport and reaction, thereby giving a fundamental insight into the pretreatment process. Ultimately, this would enable determination of effective conversion strategies not just for plant biomass, but for other similar porous materials as well.

    4. "Discusion of Water Transport in Paper ( importance of different mechanisms with differences in sheet structure)"
  20. NETInc (N)

    N2: New Products

    1. "Welstrat: An Innovative Filter Media for Hot Air Filtration"
      Speaker: , Welspun India Ltd
      Speaker: , Welspun India Ltd.

      Welspun's "Welstrat"� filter media made up of special blended synthetic fibers, singed and calendared delivers superior performance due to excellent acid, alkali and hydrolysis resistance over 100% polyester felt. Welspun's media is suitable for mid temperature range applications like F&B boilers and Ferrous alloys with thermal shrinkage less than 1% at 180 degrees for 1 Hr. Its High permeability and lower mean pore size due to hybrid technology results in better efficiency and less energy consumption. This paper also covers the comparative study of physical, chemical and performance propertiesof Welstrat and 100% PET and 100% M-Aramid material.

    2. "Liquid Moisture Management Properties of Microencapsulated Herbal finished Bamboo/Cotton Substrates"
      Author: , Chikkanna Govt Arts College
      Speaker: , Avinashilingam University for Women
      Speaker: Seshadri Ramkumar, Texas Tech University

      Fabric liquid moisture transport properties in multi dimensions called moisture management properties significantly influence human perception of moisture sensation. The equipment Moisture Management Tester (MMT) is used to evaluate textile moisture management properties and this test method is for the measurement, evaluation and classification of liquid moisture management properties of knitted, woven and Non-woven textile fabrics. 50:50 bamboo/cotton, 30'S count single jersey knitted fabric finished with Eucalyptuscitriodoura ( Eucalyptus leaf) and Azadirachtra indica (Neem leaf) herbal extract combined in the proportion of 2:1 was selected for the study. According to AATCC 195 standard liquid moisture management property of the microencapsulated herbal finished fabric was evaluated. The result shows that the overall moisture management capacity is very good and low level of water vapour resistance, it allows the body heat and sweat. This shows that measurements of OMMC on the fabric can be used to characterize the moisture related comfort of knitted fabrics and the same will be used for sportswear.

    3. "Development of Profile Polyester Fiber with Improved Wicking Performance"
      Speaker: , NMIMS
      Author: , NMIMS

      The demand for textile fabrics and its quality are growing day by day due to increasing living standards of the consumers worldwide. The users demand high levels of moisture management and comfort properties for active wear and daily garments. Moisture management in the fabrics defined as the movement of water vapor and liquid moisture from the surface of the skin to the fabric and fabric to atmosphere through a garment worn by a wearer. The fabrics structural parameters, type of fiber, fiber cross-section, yarn type, count fabric weave etc effects on the comfort properties of the fabrics. Liquid moisture management is critical in summer apparel and sports knitwear, where sweat management and evaporative cooling is crucial for maintaining thermo-physiological comfort. The fabrics produced from microfibers with high surface area and a large number of microcapillaries show improved wicking and moisture transmission properties of the fabrics. The present paper focused on the development of polyester fibers with a modified cross section for improving wicking performance of the fabrics and thereby comfort properties of the polyester fabrics.

  21. PIMA Management (M)

    M4: Women in Industry Panel: The Heart And Soul Of Excellent Communication

    1. "TBA"
      Speaker: , PMP
    2. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Georgia-Pacific Corp.
    3. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Domtar
    4. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Pulmac
  22. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PA2-PF1: Filler Composites

    Session Chair: , IMERYS
    1. "Substituting Pulp for Filler is Increasingly Attractive for Papermakers"
      Speaker: , FiberLean Technologies Ltd
    2. "Enhancement of Paper Strength by Bio-based Composite Fillers"
      Speaker: , Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
      Author: , IIT Roorkee

      Industries from different business sectors are facing challenges against global competitions for the development of sustainable and renewable products in the 21st century. Likewise, constant effort from pulp and paper manufacturers in minimizing paper cost with better quality in active field of filler modification technology is much appreciated. In the current scenario starch is proved to be a versatile low cost industrially accepted in constructing starch/mineral composite papermaking fillers .In the present study chitosan has been explored as a surface modifier for precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) to design chitosan/PCC composite filler. Two different dissolution mediums, hydrochloric and acetic acid for chitosan has been seen to affect PCC crystals. Commercial PCC comprises mostly of aragonite polymorphs along with some calcite crystals as implied by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). Characteristic absorption peaks of PCC at 1447 cm-1, 874 cm-1 and 714 cm-1 implies the calcite phase. Peaks at 1083 cm-1 and 854 cm-1 indicates the presence of aragonite crystal. It is interesting to note that surface treatment of PCC with 4% chitosan has successfully decreased the peak intensity at 1083 cm-1 and 854 cm-1.indicating that chitosan can induce crystal transformation of PCC. Further the FTIR data could be well correlated with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the aragonite and calcite phases in the native and chitosan modified PCC. Introduction of chitosan (in HCl) at 4% on PCC was found to reduce the zeta potential from -14.43mv to -9.08 mv. Moreover, morphology of the crystals was further analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Finally tensile strength of hand-sheets fabricated with chitosan/PCC composite filler increased by 8.2% compared with hand-sheets containing unmodified one with 20 % increase in ash for modified fillers. Therefore bio-based PCC composites proved to be promising for paper making applications.

    3. "Filler Co-flocculation with Cellulose Micro Fibrils — A Novel Predictive Method"
      Speaker: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden

      Filler pre-flocculation has been identified as a strategy to improve filler retention and reduce the negative impact of filler on some paper properties. Furthermore, several studies have also worked on the possibility to co-flocculate the filler with fine material prior to its addition to the stock, leading to further improvements in final product properties. In this work, we develop a new methodology to study and optimize the pre-flocculation and co-flocculation of filler with micro fibrillated cellulose (CMF) by means of a combination of different methodologies, including (1) Optimization of the flocculant dosages (and microparticle in some cases), using a Focussed Beam Reflectance methodology (FBRM), (2) Flocculation-Reflocculation and floc stability studies of the formed filler flocs, using FBRM methodology, (3) Dynamic behaviour of the suspension, using the Dynamic Flow Loop in combination with high speed cameras and FBRM ,(4) Correlation of the pre-flocculated (or co-flocculated) filler characteristics with the product and process properties, studying retention, dewatering, formation and strength, using an adapted finish sheet former. Good correlations were found, showing some linear relationships between the filler floc size, dewatering characteristics and the final product properties. Additionally, the developed methodology can be used for different pulps, and also for more general wet-end optimization studies beyond that of pre/co-flocculation.

  23. NETInc (N)

    NETWorking Happy Hour

    1. "Nanocellulose Fibrils with Glass Fibers to Improve Performance"
      Speaker: , Performance BioFilaments
  24. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PA3-CGA3: Diverse Films and Coatings

    Session Chair: , Buckman International
    1. "Development of More Sustainable Barrier Systems for Packaging"
    2. "Plastic Free Cupstock is Available"
    3. "Surface Application of Cellulose Microfibrils on Paper - Effects of Basis Weight and Surface Coverage Levels"
    4. "Comparing the Rheological Characterization of Coating Adhesives Applied to Yankee Dryers and Their Relationship with Basesheet Properties"
  25. International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC)

    IPPC3: Insights into the Mechanical Response of Paper from Modeling

    Session Chair: Sören Östlund, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    1. "An Accurate Continuum Model for Paperboard"
      Speaker: Kristofer Robertsson, Division of Solid Mechanics
    2. "Update on KTH Paperboard Modeling Challenge"
    3. "Evaluating the Mechanical Response of Fiber Networks with RVEs"
      Author: , Northwestern Polytechnical University
      Author: , RWTH Aachen University
      Speaker: Jaan-Willem Simon, RWTH Aachen University

      Many natural and synthetic materials have fibrous microstructures, such as nonwoven fabrics, paper, and fiberboard. It is usually difficult to experimentally evaluate the mechanical behavior of these fiber networks. Particularly in the out-of-plane direction, performing experiments is challenging due to the small thickness of the specimens. Hence, to properly predict mechanical properties, network-scale models are required to obtain homogenized material properties by considering fiber-scale mechanisms. The current study demonstrates a three-dimensional representative volume element (RVE) for fiber networks using the finite element method. First the classical deposition procedure has been adopted to generate fiber networks with random or preferential fiber orientations followed by an artificial compression step. The hollow fibers, described with elastic-plastic brick elements, have been joined by interface-based cohesive zone elements introduced in all fiber-fiber contact areas. Then, the fiber networks have been subjected to displacement boundary conditions, and their apparent mechanical responses have been evaluated by means of homogenization of resulting stresses. Further, an RVE size convergence study has been conducted in order to determine the appropriate RVE dimension. In particular, the out-of-plane responses in compression and in tension have been investigated by varying specimen length while keeping the specimen thickness constant. The study has shown that the smallest RVE which can represent a reasonable response from statistical point of view requires at least 160 fibers under the aforementioned circumstances. Further, at least five different realizations should be investigated for each RVE size considered. The framework established in this work can be used to model numerous kinds of fiber networks at the individual fiber level and pass the information up to the macro scale for further analysis. This model is suitable to analyze both, the in-plane and the out-of-plane deformation, where other models, e.g. with beam elements, show difficulties.

    4. "Paperboard Mechanical Properties at Fracture"
      Speaker: , Tetra Pak
      Author: , Tetra Pak

      A cohesive law can be characterized using a paper strip length less than the stable length. The cohesive law is fully characterised by the tensile strength, the maximum slope and a parameter represented the shape of the law. From the fracture energy, tensile strength and maximum slope two length measure can be defined. It is shown that a relation between these two length measures can be established, denoted by g. Tests of different sample lengths in a stroke-controlled uniaxial tensile tester gives for a critical length L_critical that the load vs. elongation curve immediately falls from a point of instability to zero load. A stable descending load-elongation curve with no discontinuous drop of the load is obtained when a length below L_stable is adopted. The length at which the paper strip exhibits a rupture that is partly stable and partly unstable is given by the interval, L_stable

    5. "The Role of the Fiber and Bond in Hygroexpansion and Curl of Paper"
      Author: , KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      Author: , KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      Speaker: Artem Kulachenko, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      Author: Ulrich Hirn, Graz University of Technology

      Hygroscopic strains often cause undesired deformation of paper, which are broadly classified as dimensional instability. The underlying mechanism of such deformation resides on the microscale and is a product of the coupling between hygroexpansion and micromechanical details of the fiber network, including the geometries and alignment of fibers and bonds. Insights into the details of the micromechanical changes in response to the moisture variations are essential in explaining the problems with dimensional stability. In this work, we study the underlying micromechanical mechanisms of hygroexpansion using detailed fiber network simulation tools. The geometry of the network is reconstructed using fiber characterization tools and microtomography images of the network. The response of the network is computed using the non-linear finite element method, in which the fibers are described using a series of beam elements, and the contact between the fibers is modeled using a point-wise contact. The hygroscopic strains are computed using a concurrent multiscale approach in which the fiber bonds are resolved at a smaller scale with a fully three-dimensional model and then incorporated in the network level model through inelastic strains. The proposed concurrent multiscale allows the consideration of networks large enough to avoid boundary effects and include inhomogeneities. The results show that due to three-dimensionality of the bond, the transverse deformations of the fibers are not transferred effectively to the in-plane deformation of the sheet. On the other hand, the out-plane deformation of the paper structure is predominantly controlled by the strain gradient in the bonds which stems from transverse shrinkage or expansion of the fibers in the bond region. Therefore, considering the bonds as 3D entities is vital for the analysis as a 2D approximation grossly overestimates the impact of the transverse deformation of the bonds to the in-plane properties and underestimates moisture-induced out-of-plane deformations of the fibers.

    6. "Discussion on Modeling of Paper and Paperboard"
  26. Process Control (PC)

    PC3-M5: Analytics and Process Monitoring

    Session Chair: , International Paper
    1. "A New Era in Mill Analytics"
      Author: , OSIsoft

      We live in an age of accessible information. Between pocket-sized smartphones, google, and wikipedia, we can almost instantly find answers to any question. Who has not asked Alexa the last Baseball Series Champion to settle a dinner debate? However, it has not always been that way. Especially at the mills, users have relied on "sneaker-net" to find basic answers to their questions, like the current grade in production. Today, technology has democratized the access to information. It is changing more than just dinner conversations; it is setting the stage to true digitalization and revolutionizing industries. Every pulp and paper mill faces the same challenge: optimizing production at the lowest possible cost. Decisions, such as rationalizing grade structures and enabling the supply chain to respond to shorter product life cycles, can have a critical impact on the bottom line. It can also mean the difference between efficient operations or shuttering the doors. This paper will cover a progressive approach to adopting mill analytics at different levels of operations. As technology evolves, so operators, engineers, subject matter experts, and managers will evolve in its adoption and application. Following a crawl-walk-run model helps to remove the barriers of adoption and ensures success. The proposed approach is simple, first begin visual analytics, second use self-service access to information, third apply data mining principles, and fourth adopt advanced tools to predict desirable states of operations. This paper will cover this methodology exemplifying the analysis of downtime events such as sheet breaks.

    2. "Tissue Asset Optimization Including Automated Centerlining"
    3. "Cloud Connected — The Next Generation of QCS Service and Optimization"
      Speaker: , Honeywell International
      Author: , Honeywell International
      Author: Trevor Newman, Honeywell International

      Today, most paper machines cannot produce products that meets quality specifications without a QCS system. To have the QCS system well maintained, optimized, and with high availability is therefore of highest importance. At the same time, producers as well as vendors are facing great challenges to staff these maintenance and optimization tasks amidst many experts retiring from the workforce. As a result, many paper producers may run up to 25% of their QCS systems sub optimally, which can have a significant negative impact on their operating income. This paper will present a cloud connected QCS service solution that mitigates the challenges of lack of access to qualified QCS maintenance and optimization personnel. With this solution, a QCS expert can provide troubleshooting and optimization services from anywhere anytime. This service provides a high-level dashboard displaying key performance indicators for production, quality, unplanned downtime, etc. Measurement and controls uptimes, and performance indicators are given, and alerts are given with likely causes and resolutions when problems are detected. Additional displays allow the user additional visualization of MD and CD controls performances.

    4. "Sheet Break Detection Systems Are Now a Critical Part of the Smart Factory"
      Speaker: , Ryeco

      The “fourth industrial revolution� referred to as “Industry 4.0,� is becoming a reality in manufacturing worldwide and paper manufacturing is no exception. Up until now, detecting paper breaks, have been accomplished by stand-alone sensors, photo-eyes and cameras with the simple function of detecting the absence of the sheet. Today, sheet break detection systems are smarter with networking capabilities, providing valuable instantaneous information on sheet break trends, equipment and maintenance from the mill floor to mill management. It is projected that within two years, 50 billion devices will be connected to the internet and a large percent of these will be part of the manufacturing process. Smarter systems equipped with ethernet and networking technologies can provide real-time information. With the ability to act upon this information quickly, sheet-break failures from heat, debris, web strikes, mounting failures and more, may become a thing of the past.

  27. Recycled Paperboard Tech Association (RPTA)

    RPTA3: Advancements in Vacuum Systems for Multi-Ply Grades Including Cylinder Machines

    Session Chair: , Caraustar
    1. "Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump Basics, Efficiency, and Energy Savings"
      Speaker: , Growth Solutions Consultants LLC

      The second biggest consumer of energy in a paper mill is the vacuum pump. The most commonly used vacuum pump is the liquid ring pump. Liquid ring pumps usually sit in the basement of the mill and run with little or no maintenance for years. They typically lose 1% of performance per year in terms of air flow because of pump wear, but will continue to use the same energy. Many were installed when electrical energy cost was low and the vacuum pump sales mantra was “you can never have too much vacuum.� This presentation will explain the basic thermodynamic principles at work in vacuum pump operation concentrating on the liquid ring pump. It will also present an energy saving framework which can be used to analyze the vacuum system on the paper machine. - Basic operating principles of the liquid ring pump - The condensation effect to increase the capacity of the vacuum pump - The effect of wear on the vacuum pump - Vacuum systems with multiple pumps - Energy savings framework and metrics– how to measure and where to look

    2. "Vacuum Blower Systems – Green Technology for the Paperboard Industry"
      Speaker: , Man Energy Solutions
    3. "Best Practices with Vacuum-Dewatering Systems for Recycled and Multi-Ply Grades"
      Author: , Doug Sweet & Associates, Inc

      Vacuum dewatering systems for recycled paperboard or containerboard have more similarities than differences when compared with those machines making paper, board, tissue, or pulp using 100% virgin fiber or a blend of virgin and recycled furnish. Issues regarding vacuum system reliability, availability of water, operating power and efficiency can also be concerns shared by most other mills. Having designed, studied, and optimized paper machine vacuum systems for over 40 years has shown that well operating vacuum systems are essential for papermaking, and contribute to sheet formation and dewatering, press performance, felt conditioning, and general machine efficiency. The vacuum system includes several sub-systems for vacuum control, air/water separation and vacuum pump seal water management. Generally, the paper machine operates with little attention required of the vacuum processes. But, these systems tend to evolve, intentionally or unintentionally, into processes with lost performance. The result is often reduced dewatering capability having a direct impact on paper machine efficiency and operating costs. Other problems can include reliability and maintenance problems contributing to downtime. These systems can incorporate liquid-ring pumps, low vacuum fans, single and multi-stage centrifugal blowers, or hybrid pump and blower configurations to complete a vacuum system. Questions concerning evaluation of liquid-ring pumps and centrifugal blower systems are now being raised more often, so this will also be addressed. This presentation will cover common issues found in these systems which can have a major impact on dewatering processes.

  28. PIMA Management (M)

    M5-PC3: Improving Performance Though Data Analytics

    1. "A New Era in Mill Analytics"
      Speaker: , OSIsoft
    2. "Cloud Connected — The Next Generation of QCS Service and Optimization"
      Speaker: , Honeywell International
    3. "Sheet Break Detection Systems Are Now a Critical Part of the Smart Factory"
      Speaker: , Ryeco
    4. "Tissue Asset Optimization Including Automated Centerlining"
      Speaker: , Consultant
  29. Coating &amp; Graphic Arts (CGA)

    CGA3-PA3: Diverse Films and Coatings

    Session Chair: , Buckman International
    1. "Development of More Sustainable Barrier Systems for Packaging"
      Speaker: , Solenis

      When was the last time you purchased something that wasn't in a package? How did the package design, graphics or functional properties affect your buying decision? Did the origin and cost of the packaging materials enter your mind? Did you consider where the packaging would end up after use? ‘Sustainability’ has always been more than a marketing slogan, ignore it and it is not a matter of if, but when something important will be in short supply. The paper industry has a lot to be proud of; wood and plant-based fiber solutions are some of the most sustainable in the market today. We've been very innovative in finding ways to impart a wide variety of functional and barrier properties to an array of paper-based flexible packaging and paperboard grades. ‘Plastics’ are a robust and versatile family of materials, formed into ‘packaging’ or combined with paper or board they can do wonderful things. Unfortunately, the story doesn't end there because some of the very properties that make plastics so versatile and robust are creating problems in our oceans, landfills, and the environment in general. Significant progress has been made in developing barrier systems from sustainable raw materials that deliver required performance while being significantly more recyclable, re-pulpable, and compostable versus polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paraffin wax, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). In this presentation we will describe the approach we have taken utilizing vegetable oils and unique micro-encapsulation technology in creating more sustainable barrier systems. We will present case studies for food and quick-serve wrap, corrugated containers for fresh foods, and for food and cup stock board. We will include discussion of technical success and failures to achieve functional requirements, the economic value proposition, and comparisons of re-pulpability and compostability.

    2. "Plastic Free Cupstock is Available"
      Speaker: , Kotkamills Oy

      The increasing public pressure towards plastic waste has enhanced the development of plastic free Barrier Boards. By the use of modern coating technology and water based dispersion coating materials Cupstock and other Barrier Boards can be produced efficiently in large scale. Recyclability of the new grade is very easy. Production cost comparison per tonne of Board shows clear differences , but when calculated per coffee cup the costs are rather marginal. Only small changes in the Cup making machine adjustments are needed and plastic free Cupstock can be run at the same machine speed as plastic coated Cupstock.

    3. "Surface Application of Cellulose Microfibrils on Paper - Effects of Basis Weight and Surface Coverage Levels"
      Speaker: , University of Maine
      Author: , University of Maine
      Author: Mehdi Tajvidi, University of Maine
      Author: Mohammed Al-Gharrawi, University of Maine
      Author: , University of Maine

      Films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) or papers coated with CNF have been shown to have excellent oxygen barrier properties and grease resistance. However, the continuous production of CNF films or the coating of CNF on paper is difficult due to the high amount of water that needs to be dried, since CNF is typically produced and applied at about 3% consistency or less. CNF can also be added to the surface of the sheet at the wet end of the paper machine with a slot coater, curtain coater, or secondary headbox, to take advantage of the mechanical dewatering before drying. The properties of paper with surface applied CNF are not yet well described in the literature. In this study, various amounts of CNF were applied on the wet end of a pilot paper machine using a curtain coater, at three different basis weights of paper. A number of properties were measured, including Gurley porosity, bulk, internal bond, tensile, and absorption rates. Most properties were impacted at levels as low as 2 g/m2 (gsm) but at 4 gsm, the sheet becomes quite closed or less porous. The permeability decreased by two orders of magnitude. A water borne barrier coating was applied on the CNF layer. The barrier coating was much more effective on the CNF layer than without this layer. This surface closure could lead to novel products or improved properties of current grades.

    4. "Comparing the Rheological Characterization of Coating Adhesives Applied to Yankee Dryers and Their Relationship with Basesheet Properties"
      Speaker: , Georgia-Pacific LLC

      The majority of tissue production uses creping to achieve the required set of properties on the basesheet. The yankee coating helps to develop the desired crepe which in turn determines properties such as bulk and softness. The adhesion of the sheet to the yankee surface is a very important characteristic to consider in order to achieve the desired crepe. Many conventional creping adhesives become too rigid and lose tack adhesion at elevated yankee temperature ranges. In this paper, two already prepared industrial yankee coating adhesives were examined rheologically. Adhesive one was designed to achieve moisture levels of 4.5 - 6% and above in the basesheet and can withstand lower temperature range of about (180 - 220 degF) without becoming rigid, while adhesive two can remain soft at higher temperature range of about (200 - 260 degF) and therefore has more adhesion required for basesheet moisture of about 2.5 – 4.5%. The rheology of Adhesive two has been tuned with a higher plasticizer content. The aim of introducing adhesive two is to achieve a lower target moisture (by having a higher adhesion) with more heat flux from the yankee dryer (without hardening) and increase the softness and caliper. Both adhesives were tested with and without the yankee coating release. Flow curves at varying temperatures were studied and also the linear and non-linear viscoelastic characteristics to understand the microstructure of the adhesives. The flow and viscoelasticity for the coating adhesives were investigated through rotational and oscillatory tests and used to understand their performance on the basesheet properties.

  30. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM3: Optimizing Strength on Containerboard Grades

    Session Chair: , USG
    1. "TBA"
    2. "Managing Sheet Control in the Press Section"
      Speaker: , AstenJohnson

      This paper will look a sheet edge flipping, edge drop-offs, sheet stealing, wrinkles and air bubbles that are affected by sheet control. This paper would look at the impact of press fabric design, press fabric conditioning, suction transfer rolls, transfer boxes and exit geometry as factors that impact sheet control.

    3. "Save your Fibers, Keep the Strength - Shoe Press and Sizing Technology in your Toolbox"
      Speaker: , PMP

      In today’s world it is key to utilize available resources in a smart way. Fibers are essential to develop the strength and stiffness of the packaging materials. To create an added value from the base resource is a matter of being the leader of the market. Nowadays papermakers daily work is to provide high quality product, decrease production costs and to maintain the balance between those two. The trend of decreasing product grammage and increasing its strength properties is visible on a global scale. US producers still do have space for optimization and they might take the advantage of available solutions. Modern and compact shoe press design is the best tool to press maximum result from a potential of available fiber. Shoe press is robust and seasoned technology and yet is more and more demanding in a sense of daily paper production. To provide expected results, PMP offers specific features (smart maintenance solutions), that makes working with shoe press more effective from a performance perspective and easier for operators. The next step in the process is to enhance the properties of the packaging material with the process additives. Post-consumer fiber utilization is an upcoming trend, so the industry needs to respond to that with minimizing impact on cost and environmental footprint. Starch is a very well known additive to increase the strength and stiffness of the paper. It has also significant effect on printability of the FMCG packaging. The clever way of how to deliver its properties to the paper is a key. Spray sizing offers the opportunity to combine these two aspects. The paper is going to cover some case studies from European market as well as innovative engineering concepts to inspire the audience of how to save fibers and at the same time increase paper properties.

    4. "Surface Sizing with High Nip Pressure"
      Speaker: , Valmet

      Linerboard and fluting have strict requirements on strength and at the same time they are produced from raw materials which have deteriorating properties. The OCC based furnish is loosing its strength potential as the fiber material is recycled more and more. Building the strength for recycled base linerboards relies heavily on surface sizing. The sizing technology has remained the same for decades with only minor adaptations done to the equipment. It has been accepted that good sizing result requires deep penetration for the size and that this penetration is mainly dependent on the wetting time in the roll nip. In the latest development it has been shown that the penetration and sizing effect is much more efficiently achieved utilizing high pressures in the size press nip. This can lead to up to 20% more efficient size usage in the surface sizing unit. Valmet has developed a new size press concept utilizing hard covered nip rolls and totally new size application equipment which can be utilized forming a film transfer process on the hard rolls. The new application equipment also eliminates the mixing of furnish impurities into the size circulation. The new equipment has been repeatedly demonstrated in Valmet pilot plant and the first commercial application has been started up in April 2018.

  31. NETInc (N)

    N3: Sustainability

    Session Chair: , Imbed Biosciences
    1. "Biodegradable Weed Control Fabric Made with Flax and PLA Fibers"
      Author: , Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi
      Speaker: , Jefferson University
      Author: Christopher Pastore, Thomas Jefferson University

      Weed control is an ongoing issue in growing plants, whether in lawns, gardens, or as a crop. Many current weed control products are based on non-degradable materials, which break down over time, leaving micro plastics in the soil, or which need to be removed prior to future growing cycles. A weed control fabric made with flax and PLA fibers was created and evaluated in the lab and in-situ to determine its properties, its effectiveness, and how its decomposition affected the soil.

    2. "Functional Performance Enhancements of Roll-to-Roll Materials Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Technology"
      Speaker: , ITW Pillar Technologies

      Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment technology (APPT) is finding application in all areas that place high demands on quality, productivity, environmental compatibility, and flexibility. In particular, continuous, in-line APPT treatments of textile, nonwoven, and film materials is expanding rapidly for improving properties, such as ink/coating/adhesive adhesion, dye-ability, dye-uptake, and breathability. Furthermore, APPT has recently provided unique opportunities for textile and nonwoven treatment, and specifically in comparison to the conventional wet processing and finishing of these materials. This discussion will share analyses of APPT-treated materials, and specifically the effect of APPT exposure time on the surface properties and mechanical properties of materials studied. A further discussion of the configuration of commercial APPT systems designed to deliver these properties at desired production speeds will be provided.

    3. "Biodegradation of Wool Felt Fabric Waste"
      Speaker: , Jefferson University

      Wool felt waste fabric, from a local hat manufacturer, was composted to determine whether it would biodegrade and the effects it would have upon the composting environment. After four weeks the dyed felt had degraded, but not significantly, however, undyed felt had degraded to a higher degree and appeared to have slightly influenced the soil composition.

    4. "Energy Conservation in Spun Lace Non-Woven Fabric Manufacturing By Statistical Design of Experiment"
      Speaker: , NMIMS
      Author: , NMIMS

      The main objective of this project is energy conservation by minimizing the energy consumed in Hydroentangling process. The Spunlaced process is a nonwovens manufacturing system that employs jets of water to entangle fibers and provide physical and mechanical properties to the fabrics. In spunlaced manufacturing 4 to 10 water jetting heads called as manifolds are used. The initial manifolds are used for wetting and removal of air pockets in the of the fiber web. The last three are used to provide physical and mechanical properties of the spunlaced nonwoven fabrics. In this project, we worked for energy conservation on a machine with 8 manifolds out of which manifold number 3.1, 3.2 and 4.1 are selected to optimize water pressure. The 15 spunlaced nonwoven fabric samples were produced by using Box "“ Behnken design (BBD) design of experiment (DOE). Prepared samples are tested with standard test methods to study correlation and analyzing the response surface plots, of these three process parameters for each property of the nonwoven fabric. The outcome of this research will help to optimize the water jetting pressure of corresponding manifolds as per required improvement in the properties of the nonwoven.

    5. "Fluorinanted Fibers and Finishes"
      Speaker: , W.L. Gore
  32. Papermaking Fundamentals (PF)

    PF2: Fundamentals of Wood Components and Fiber Strength

    Session Chair: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
    1. "Improving Paper Wet-Strength by Means Hot-Pressing and Increased Lignin Content in Pulp Fibres"
      Speaker: , Mid Sweden University

      This research is focused on unbleached chemical pulps from softwood during hot-pressing and it is shown that improvement in wet strength is possible without addition of chemicals when using lignin rich-pulps. Lab scale produced unbleached chemical pulp containing three levels of lignin, one mill produced unbleached chemical pulp and one chemithermo-mechanical (CTMP, CSF 420 ml) pulp have been compared to evaluate dry- and wet-strength properties of paper materials. We have used staining- and UV-methods with light microscope techniques to study the cross sections of paper sheets. It is observed how fibers in chemithermo-mechanical pulp based paper sheets collapse whereas chemical pulp fibers do not change their form during densification by means of hot-pressing. These microscopic methods also show the presence of lignin in the paper structure. Paper sheets made from unbleached chemical pulp show significant increase in wet strength from 4 kNm/kg to 23 kNm/kg, when increasing pressing temperature from 20° to 200oC. CTMP show corresponding increase from 2 kNm/kg to 16 kNm/kg. While there is neither an increase in dry strength which is initially high, nor in density for chemical pulp based sheets, CTMP shows an increase of 53% and 100% respectively. This is due to the difference in collapsing properties between CTMP pulp fibers that are very stiff compared to chemical pulp fibers that are very flexible already at room temperature. The SCT values show an increase up to 35% for lignin-rich pulp based paper sheets when hot-pressing. From these experiments it is also seen that wet strength increased with increasing lignin content and that the established wet strength lasted after 24 hours.

    2. "Modification of Softwood Kraft Pulp for Improved Tissue Paper"
      Speaker: , Mid Sweden University
      Author: , Mid Sweden University
      Author: Peter Sandström Sandström, SCA Forest Products AB

      Three types of pulps were produced in laboratory scale using; 1) conventional softwood based kraft pulping process, 2) same process with oxidizing additive and 3) same process with reducing additive. Modification of softwood kraft pulp by the addition of either polysulfide (PS) or sodium borohydride (NaBH4) has been shown to increase the pulp yield due to a higher retention of glucomannan. The pulps with higher yield gave a paper with higher tensile index than reference pulp, especially at lower degrees of refining. The higher yield pulps also showed a greater porosity of the fibre wall, indicating an increase in the swelling potential of the fibres. This can lead to increased fibre flexibility and increased joint strength between the fibres and to the higher handsheet tensile index. However, the swelling increase associated with the higher hemicellulose content could also make dewatering more challenging because of the higher water retention of the pulp. The results showed that the positive influence of overall yield (fewer fibres and a more open sheet structure) increase dominated over the negative influence of increased hemicellulose content with regard to dewatering properties at measured as solid content as a function of dwell time. This effect was most pronounced at lower refining energy levels. Studies simulating full-scale tissue machine dewatering conditions showed that pulps with a higher yield and a higher hemicellulose content had a higher tensile index at the same dryness. Moreover, the same dryness level was achieved in a shorter dwell-time. A given tensile index was also achieved with less refining energy. Increasing the yield and hemicellulose content by the addition of either an oxidizing or a reducing agent in the softwood kraft pulping process thus has a potential for giving high quality fibres for tissue paper production with less refining energy and lower drying energy costs.

    3. "Fibre-Based Strength Aids for Increased Board Stiffness"
      Author: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: Hannes Vomhoff, Holmen
      Speaker: Claes Holmqvist, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden

      In this study the concept of adding fibre-based strength agents in a board middle ply containing CTMP was evaluated in pilot scale. The goal was to produce a board with increased bending stiffness at maintained Z-strength. The approach was to increase the bulk in the middle ply by increasing the CTMP share, and to add a strength agent made from chemical pulp to maintain the Z-strength. The strength agents were fines-enriched pulp (FE-pulp) and highly-fibrillated pulp (HF-pulp), both hardwood based. The top ply, with the same composition throughout the trial, was made of bleached kraft pulp. Due to the configuration of the pilot machine it was only possible to make a 2-ply sheet, consisting of a top ply and a middle ply. The properties of a the 3-ply structure were evaluated by couching two 2-ply sheets together. The results of the pilot trials showed that the bending stiffness could be increased with an increasing CTMP share in the middle ply. The higher CTMP share increased the bulk, and the loss in Z-strength could be compensated for by adding FE-pulp or HF-pulp. FE-pulp proved to be more efficient than HF-pulp regarding bending stiffness improvement. The bulk-strength relationship could be shifted, i.e. both Z-strength and bulk increased compared with the reference, for three of the evaluated compositions. The addition of strength agents yielded lower press dryness. However, the lower dryness could be compensated with a higher press load. A higher press load resulted in about 2 %-units higher press dryness for all sheet structures, while the Z-strength and bulk were nearly unaffected. An estimation of the economic effect of an increased share of CTMP showed that there is also a significant cost reduction potential, since CTMP is cheaper than kraft pulp.

    4. "Multiple Recycling of Paper Board: Determination of Changes in Characteristics of Paper Board and Assessment of the Maximum Number of Recycling Cycles"
      Speaker: , Technische Universität Darmstadt
      Author: , Technische Universität Darmstadt
      Author: Samuel Schabel, Technische Universität Darmstadt

      Multiple Recycling of Paper Board: Determination of Changes in Characteristics of Paper Board and Assessment of the Maximum Number of Recycling Cycles Paper for recycling is the most important resource for the paper industry worldwide and in particular for Germany. However, the reuse of fibers leads to a change in mechanical and chemical fiber properties due to recycling and papermaking processes. Therefore, specific paper properties cannot be guaranteed in a closed recycling system. In the past (2005-2017), the German paper production changed, and the actual trend appears to proceed. The production of graphical papers decreased by almost 23 % (- 2.3 m tons) while packaging paper and board increased by 39 % (+ 3.3 m tons). Packaging paper traditionally has a high consumption of paper for recycling. Therefore, less primary fibers from graphical papers are available for refreshing the fiber composition in the recycling system. These changes will affect the production of paper for corrugated board with a nearly closed recycling system and a recovered paper utilization rate of 108 %. These facts lead to two questions: • Will the change in the composition of paper for recycling affect the quality of paper for corrugated board (made of 100 % paper for recycling)? • How often can fibers be recycled to produce corrugated board? The objective of this project is to investigate the impact of: • the fiber type (Primary/ secondary fibers, laboratory), • the application of starch (Laboratory), • defibering conditions (Laboratory) and • corrugated paper board production (Pilot/industrial scale) on paper properties during multiple recycling of the fibers. The results of the project can reveal ways to deal with changes in the composition of paper for recycling to ensure high quality standards. The results also may affect life cycle assessment and the ecological image of paper-based disposable packaging products compared to reusable packaging.

  33. Poster Session (P)

    Poster Session

    1. "SmoothRun Hydro-Pneumatic Damping System - Unlocking Winder Potential"
      Speaker: , Voith Paper Inc.

      Effective vibration damping is a must in Winders to ensure consistent high speeds, even under the most demanding production conditions. The Voith SmoothRun damping system – unique worldwide – actively minimizes vibrations caused by numerous factors in the production process. The results are optimal winding and reduced machine wear. In addition, the risk of uncontrolled roll kickouts is significantly reduced. To minimize vibration interferences during the winding process, the production speed and acceleration rates of conventional winders are reduced below the maximum capable values. SmoothRun hydro-pneumatic damping bearings overcome these events by effectively minimizing vibrations, even at high speeds. Thus the SmoothRun damping system allows for higher production speeds, better winding results of finished rolls and consistently high production speeds and maximum acceleration rates. By minimizing the paper induced vibrations, the equipment can deliver better quality finished rolls, reduced maintenance and added safety. Significantly smoother machine operation improves the roll building quality considerably by reducing the winding defects resulting from vibrations. At the same time the damping also reduces the mechanical load on the winder, which in turn lowers the overall maintenance costs. In addition, operator safety is increased as the risk of uncontrolled roll kickouts is reduced.

    2. "Investigating the Bond Between Cellulose Fibers Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer"
      Author: , Graz University of Technology
      Speaker: Ulrich Hirn, Graz University of Technology
      No: Robert Schennach,

      The bond between paper fibers plays a crucial role for the strength of a paper sheet and its final properties. An important part of the bondstrength is the amount of area of the fiberbond that is close enough to exhibit physical forces. The term that has been established for this property is area in molecular contact. For that reason, it is not surprising that many people try to investigate this problem using different approaches such as nanocomputertomography by Retulainen et al. or polarization microscopy by Schennach et al.. Here we are using a method called Förster Resonance Energy Transfer to tackle the problem. It is based on the distant dependent interaction between two fluorescent dyes, which are in our case chemically bound to two separate fibers. If the fibers get close enough (physical contact), a signal should be detected. The distance dependence of most of the dye combinations is 1-10 nm which results in a worst case resolution of 10 nm. In this work we focus on the alteration of the paper fibers by plasma based methods to achieve a layer of fluorophores that is strictly confined to the surface of the fibers. The methods under investigation are plasma etching and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Previous experiments have shown the necessity of this as a surface dying of the cellulose fibers would result in a large enhancement of the signal to noise ratio of the FRET measurement. These different approaches will be tested regarding their feasibility for the FRET investigation.

    3. "Center Lining for Process Stabilization"
      Author: , Trimble Forestry Europe Oy
      Speaker: , Trimble Forestry Europe Oy
      No: Michael Gee, Trimble Inc.

      Process stabilization is critical for all industrial processes to ensure uniform quality and low production costs. Center lining is commonly used term for methods to keep key process variables in desired levels. There are several steps in effective center lining approach. At the first data analysis methods and process knowledge are needed to identify key process variables affecting most to the end product quality. Then proper limits for those key variables need to be defined based on data. In multi grade processes the limits need to be set on grade dependent way. When limits are set it is important that the key variables with the limits and possible limit violations are visualized in a user-friendly format for process operators. There need to be also tools to search root causes of the limit violations. In this way the operators can react quickly to process problems and keep the process in a stable mode. When the process is stabilized it is possible to tighten the limits to produce even better quality in larger amounts and in the same time reduce energy consumption and reduce raw material costs. This presentation shows how to apply efficiently center lining methods to process data.

    4. "Interaction Flocculation-Turbulence Model of Pulp of Paper Flow in Pipes"
      Author: , Lorraine University-LEMTA

      In papermaking pulp and paper, treatment processes need the optimization of various unit operations that require a better knowledge of the pulp of paper behaviour. The Pulp of paper, which is a suspension of cellulose fibres in water, shows several regimes when flowing in pipes. These regimes are experimentally and qualitatively well described in the literature, they are related to the evolution of fibre flocculation characterizing different regimes (called: plug flow, mixed regime and turbulent flow). By against quantitative descriptions of these regimes are limited. There are no model in the literature for describing entirety the behaviour of the pulp of paper flow from a plug flow (high shear friction at low velocities) to identical behaviour that of water at high velocities (turbulent Newtonian flow) going through drag reduction in intermediate velocities (high interactions between flocs and turbulence). We propose the experimental investigations of the pulp of paper flow for several concentrations of fibres in two diameters of pipes (confinement effects). These results are compared to a new model describing the behaviour of paper for all regimes. The proposed model is based on calculating: - the average shear stress which takes into account both the elasticity modulus of the flocs and that of the fibres network (aggregated flocs) - the turbulent flow with a viscosity of the fluid (water) modified by dispersed fibres around flocs and effect of spatial exclusion flocs/turbulent eddies. With this we can also evaluate the flocculation rate and drag reduction as a function of the flow rate for different fibre concentrations.

    5. "Simulation of the Fines Circulation and Their Impact on Paper and Paper Machines"
      Speaker: , Lodz University of Technology

      Every stable, continuous technological process operates under certain dynamically balanced conditions. In general, this state can be described as a “Technological Equilibrium” of a process. To be useful, it should be precisely determined by proper numeric factors. In case of paper production process, technological equilibrium is a set of the following partial equilibriums: water, mass (fines), physico-chemical, microbiological and thermal. These equilibriums can be characterized by the following factors: specific water consumption, consistency of suspended and dissolved (organic and inorganic) solids in a technological water, amount and species of microorganisms in a technological water and temperature of a technological water. Nowadays, decrease of the specific fresh water consumption is one of the most difficult tasks in papermaking. However, increased re-use of technological waters causes the significant change in the technological equilibrium in paper mill. In extreme situation, it can result in unstable process parameters, lower production efficiency and quality. Therefore, investigations in this field are fundamental from practical point of view. The main objective of this work was to develop the model and computer application for analysis of the technological equilibrium in water-mass loops of a paper machine. The main task of the research was preceded by laboratory experiments related to kinetics of fines fraction development in technological waters of a paper mill and desorption of dissolved solids from papermaking pulps. Relationships between specific fresh water consumption and fines accumulation in technological water were also determined. As a result of the analysis, an empirical formulas were generated that enables to determine the values of a fines equilibrium. Obtained results were subsequently used during development of the mathematical model and process simulator of a wet-end part of a paper machine. Proposed software enabled also the possibility of analysis of unstable, transient states which originated from a system response to applied changes.

    6. "Cellulose Nanocrystal Coated Polymer Films-The Next Generation of Sustainable High Barrier Packaging Film"
      Speaker: , Purdue University
      Author: , Purdue University
      No: Jeffrey Youngblood,
      Author: John Howarter, Purdue University

      Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising materials for the packaging industry due to their non-toxicity, abundance in nature and biodegradability. In packaging applications, CNC coatings can improve the gas barrier performance of traditional low barrier polymer films because of their high crystallinity. Due to their brittleness, obtaining sufficient quality CNC coated polymer films is challenging. In this study, CNC-based pure and composite films were coated on polypropylene film by shear coating to investigate the barrier performance of the coated films. The study suggests that controlling the alignment of the CNCs can control the free volume of the system, which enhances the barrier performance. Furthermore, the addition of polymer into CNC suspension can significantly improve the barrier performance of the CNC films.

    7. "Impact of Time Dependent Liquid Properties on Paper Wetting Measured with Pico-drop Contact Angle Measurement"
      Speaker: , Graz University of Technology

      In this study liquid penetration in the field of High Speed Inkjet (HSI) printing is investigated. In HSI printing, the penetration speed and wetting of the ink is important, especially at short timescales (<100ms). We investigate parameters, which are responsible for the absorption behaviour and how strongly they affect it. Therefore, we study the influence of viscosity and surface tension on droplet behaviour during the first few milliseconds of contact with the paper. Furthermore, the change of liquid property impact on drop behaviour over contact time is investigated. The development of five model liquids was done using the Ohnesorge – Number and Reynolds Number to guarantee a jet-able fluid. The fluids have varying surface tension and viscosity to study the effect of these properties on penetration and wetting. Not only the liquid property is affecting penetration behaviour, but also the paper grade significantly influences the penetration process. Therefore, we have tested the performance of model liquids on four different woodfree, uncoated, fine papers from an industrial supplier. These papers are an unsized und untreated paper, unsized HSI paper grade; an HSI unsized pigmented paper and an AKD sized paper. A pico-liter contact angle measurement device is used for creating droplets in the lower pl – range (starting from 30pl). After the drop meets the surface of the paper the change of contact angle and change in volume of the drop is measured every 0.5ms after contact. These results show that there is a change of main impact factor after longer contact times (~8ms) with the paper. Furthermore, the paper influence is getting more important for longer contact times.

    8. "The Relationship between Sheet Contraction and Elongation of Paper for Improved Formability"
      Speaker: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

      The shrinkage of paper can be defined as dimensional contraction taking place in-plane and the extent of shrinkage is usually presented as a percentage. The overall effect of drying shrinkage on the elongation of paper is governed by the pulp fiber shrinkage. The relationship between drying shrinkage and elongation is typically approximately linear and can be slightly over 10% in laboratory conditions. Despite the importance of the prior shrinkage for elongation, the role of shrinkage has quite often been ignored in scientific investigations and may not be recognized in industrial processes. Elongation at break of restrained dried laboratory paper sheet is typically less than 5%, and of unrestrained dried less than 10%. However, elongations well above 10% can be achieved even industrial processes by in-plane compaction (as used typically in sack-paper production) and creping operations that treat a formed fiber network mechanically. Web speed at a creping cylinder is higher than at reeling. The extent of creping can be estimated using the crepe ratio, which can be directly converted to shrinkage. In a practical sense, the crepe ratio can be used only for a continuous creping process. In similar manner, a speed ratio at compaction cylinder or at another industrial process operation can be calculated. The same dimensional contraction of a sheet can be strained out in tensile testing. However, percentage-wise the elongation is greater than the contraction due to different reference points. The mathematical non-linear relationship that describes the effect of contraction on elongation at break is not so well recognized, due to typically small in-plane length changes of paper and on the other hand difficulty to connect speed ratios used in industrial processes to elongation of paper. The proposed relationship does not depend on whether the contraction is in fiber or fiber network scale.

    9. "Improving Wastewater Treatment Performance to Save Costs and Prevent Pollution"
      Speaker: , Real Tech Inc.
      Author: , Real Tech Inc.

      Manufacturing processes in the Pulp and Paper industry are heavily reliant on water, resulting in large volumes of wastewater that can contain complex mixtures of dyes, liquors, organic pollutants, solids, and other chemicals. Wastewater treatment professionals face difficult challenges managing operations as limited insights are available from the production process. Unexpected spills or upsets are problematic for effective wastewater treatment and can compromise effluent quality, which is often required to meet environmental discharge permit limits or comply with municipal sewer regulations. Many water quality parameters and compounds that are useful for wastewater management and event detection are still routinely tested in the laboratory. Availability of much needed real-time water quality information can have a significant impact on a plant’s performance by providing timely detection of events, enabling better decision making, and the ability to confidently optimize treatment in response to current water quality conditions. Advanced water quality monitoring systems manufactured by Real Tech enable real-time detection of several parameters traditionally left to the laboratory and difficult to detect compounds that otherwise could not be monitored. This includes biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dyes, soaps, surfactants, black liquor, white liquor, turpentine, tall oil, foul condensate and other compounds relevant to the paper industry. The monitoring system utilizes a UV-Vis spectrophotometric sensor for measurement and custom machine learning algorithms that transform the raw sensor data into meaningful information for operations personnel. Implementation of real-time monitoring can result in a variety of beneficial outcomes including informed decision making, optimization of treatment system performance, greater process control, optimization of chemical and nutrient dosing, reduction in effluent surcharge fines/fees and protection of advanced treatment systems from overloading and early exhaustion. With advanced real-time detection, wastewater treatment professionals can gain a more complete understanding of their wastewater and processes.

    10. "Mechanical Approach on the Investigation of Disintegrability of Hydroentangled Wet Wipes"
      Speaker: , Graz University of Technology
      Author: Ulrich Hirn, Graz University of Technology

      Usage of wet wipes in private households, hospitals and veterinarian institutions is facing rapid growth. With this growth also the disposal of these convenient products rises, which causes problems all over the world as those wipes do not disintegrate after they were flushed down the drain. Metropolises like London and New York are among cities that reported issues in their sewer systems due to the use and dispose of wet wipes that do not disintegrate. The objective of this work is to investigate disintegration mechanisms that occur in wet wipes when they are disposed. Investigation on possible influences of the used raw materials on the disintegrability of wet wipes, which solely consist of viscose fibres and pulp, required a broad trial plan that includes different precursor blends. Part of this plan is the usage of different kinds of dissolving pulps (softwood and hardwood), different viscose fibres (shape, density, length) and different ratios of pulp to viscose fibres. An industrial applied measurement method that simulates the sewer systems (Slosh box) is used to determine the ability of wet wipes to disintegrate after disposal. This measurement method consists of plastic containers filled with a defined amount of water that is alternatingly tilted back and forth, which implies a multiaxial load on the tested wet wipe. Slosh box tests show that the application of different materials for wet wipes affect their ability to disintegrate after disposal. Flat viscose fibres tend to give a better disintegration behaviour than round fibres. With higher amount of viscose fibre in the wet wipes the disintegrability decreases. The influence of pulp can hardly be ascertained as not all pulps can be used for hydroentanglement of the wipes.

    11. "An Engineer View of Tissue Products in The Market"
      Speaker: , UW-Stevens Point
      Speaker: Roland Gong, UW-Stevens Point
      Speaker: Roland Gong, UW-Stevens Point

      The competition of tissue products in current market is furious. Branded tissue products from traditional producer including Procter and Gamble, Kimberly-Clark have been challenged by store branded products, such as Walmart, Target. It is difficult to select the “best” tissue products for a consumer without paper knowledge. A group of undergraduate in the University of Wisconsin -Stevens Point are interested to rank tissue products in current market using their customized “formula”. The target tissue products are bath tissue, towel and facial tissue. We plan to analyze sheet physical properties, fiber content and properties, other evaluations such as consumer experience are also considered. Each evaluation will be weighted with a specific factor. A ranking chart based on a paper engineer view will be built at the end.

    12. "A Value Approach for Providing Preservation to the Coating Process / Case Study"
      Speaker: , Kemira Chemicals, Inc.
      Author: , Kemira Chemicals, Inc.

      The rising popularity of internet trade and home delivery systems are expected to drive the growth of the global coated paper materials market to USD 7.18 billion by 2021 (1). Packaging is the largest segment of the coated paper market which includes food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical segments. The process of coating paper or board involves surface application, lamination or inclusion into the paper and paperboard of a wide variety of materials that have long been in the Kemira’s customer’s portfolio. These materials include (among others) PCC, GCC, TiO2, Kaolin, latexes (various chemistries), defoamers, rheology modifiers, water quality products, starch, gums, colorants and lubricants. Kemira offers expertise in the handling, application and preservation of these components as well as analysis and optimization of the the coating process. The challenge is that this expertise often has difficulty reaching the mill personnel who most need it to recognize problems and provide the basis for a potential solution. There is great value in the mill having a “play book” to determine best practices and what is needed for component and fininshed coating preservation in coating makedown and storage systems so that expertise can be transferred to the mill allowing first steps towards a solution. This poster/case study presentation provides details for performing Coating Kitchen audits focusing on preservation of coating components and finished coating. It includes raw material audits, laboratory tests (and reasoning), physical coating attributes related to bacterial spoilage and biocide product properties. Recognizing that each system incorporates unique aspects, the best option is a customized solution for individual mills instead of “cookie cutter” approaches. Communicating critical expertise is an important part of the process and value to the customer is demonstrated by the rise in coating biocide accounts at established and new customers in NA. (1) Markets and Markets™; Jan. 2017

    13. "Water-based Modifications of CNF for Packaging Applications"
      Speaker: , University of Maine
      Author: , University of Maine
      No: William Gramlich,

      Due to their grease and oxygen barrier properties, cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have shown potential for various packaging applications. However, CNF films are limited by the brittleness, sensitivity to moisture, and lack of water vapor barrier properties. This project was designed to functionalize CNF in water to influence these properties. Esterification reactions were carried out performed to create norbornene-functionalized cellulose nanofibrils which enable secondary modifications. Using a versatile thiol-ene reaction on this highly-reactive norbornene group allows addition of different molecules of varying hydrophilicities and polar surface area onto the surface of CNF. This work reports the changes in bulk and surface properties of films composed of modified CNF, where the molecule added changes in its hydrophobic nature. The mechanical properties are influenced by the type of molecule to a certain extent. In all cases the grease barrier properties are excellent. The water barrier behavior, contact angle, surface roughness, and density are reported. The rate of dewatering and rheology of CNF are also influenced by the modification.

    14. "Reduce Web Breaks. Maximize Process Stability. Create Value. Improving Paper Machine and Processing Efficiency."
      Speaker: , ISRA Surface Vision Inc

      Paper Inspection systems are a powerful tool for improving the quality of graphic paper, paperboard, pulp sheet, coated papers, and specialty grades. Some systems offer functionality beyond defect detection. The system can be setup to selectively detect and accurately classify a variety of paper and pulp imperfections such as holes, dirt, shives, stems, streaks, wrinkles, scratches, water spots, pits, dents, and contamination. Images of each defect are classified, stored, and displayed. Discrete defect information such as a reel map is provided for subsequent converting and defect trend information and repeat defect alarming is presented for process improvement and monitoring. PaperQMS Tools to maximize Yield: Easy. Innovative. Extensive. ► Save costs: React immediately on changing customer demands and production situations ► Validate quality: Intense synchronization between web inspection and independent production data to easy identify correlations ► Exceed your customer’s quality expectations! PQMS Key Capabilities ► Slow the converter for specific defects to prevent breaks & alleviate production bottleneck at converting (UCS) ► Classification: Position, frequency & severity of defects created by the paper machine (100 % Web Inspection) ► Determine where the defects originate (100 % web quality monitoring with WBM) ► Identify root cause of sheet breaks (Unified WIS-WBM) ► Efficient quality decision support by correlating complete web inspection with paper machine data (PaperQMS)

  34. Lunch/Exhibit/NTS

  35. NETInc (N)

    N4: Process Advances 1

    Session Chair: , Jefferson University
    1. "Fiber Segment Orientation and Crossings in Nonwovens from 3D X-Ray Microscopic Data Sets"
      Speaker: , Miami University

      The orientation of free fiber segments and the extent of interfiber bonding are key elements of the mechanical strength and deformability of many nonwovens. Direct determination of fiber orientation is elusive, where methods such as MD/CD tensile strength ratio, ultrasonic tensile stiffness orientation or 2D image analysis are used to estimate the mean in-plane fiber orientation. Characterization of interfiber bonding is even more difficult to determine accurately. 3D X-ray microscopy (3D-XRM) has enabled the visualization of the internal structural of fibrous webs, from which detailed analyses of fiber distribution and position are possible. This presentation describes an analytical method that quantifies the local 3D orientation of fiber segments between fiber crossings in low density fibrous webs. 3D-XRM data sets were obtained using an Xradia MicroXCT-200 for nonwoven samples selected from the INDA Reference Sampler. The analytical method involved determination of the moment of inertia for a spherical region about each solid voxel contained within the data set. Using a method of principal component analysis, the three angles and three eigenvalues that define the orientation and prolateness of a characteristic ellipsoid for each voxel were determined. For low density nonwovens with relatively uniform fiber cross sections, such as spun bond, the analytical method produces well defined fiber segment orientation that can be used to analyze regional orientation such as machine direction fiber alignment, out-of-plane waviness and embossments. The method fails to provide fiber orientation in regions proximate to fiber crossings where the inertial ellipsoid becomes an oblate spheroid. However, the number of crossings in a specific region can be determined by identifying regions where the characteristic ellipsoid is indeed oblate. The method is ideal for comparing mean fiber orientation in different regions of the structure, determining the extent layered vs. felted structure through the Z-direction, or characterizing structural features.

    2. "Process Optimization in Spun Lace Nonwoven Fabric Manufacturing"
      Speaker: , NMIMS
      Author: , NMIMS

      The Spunlace process is a nonwovens manufacturing system that employs jets of water to entangle fibers and thereby provide fabric integrity. The aged practice of consolidating a web is a mechanical bonding process, and this process entangles the fibers to provide better strength to the web. In the spunlaced nonwoven manufacturing process, the various parameters are important such as fiber properties- length, diameter, cross section; web- forming method, thickness; water jet- speed, Pressure, temperature, breakdowns in the machine. This project aims at optimization of spunlaced nonwoven fabric manufacturing process parameters GSM , Card Delivery rate and Jet Pressure with respect to physical and mechanical properties. The 15 spunlaced nonwoven fabric samples were produced by using Box "“ Behnken design (BBD) design of experiment (DOE) to study correlation and analyzing the response surface plots, of these three process parameters for each property of the nonwoven fabric. The outcome of this research will help to optimize the GSM and delivery speed for the required improvement in the properties of the nonwoven.

    3. "Foam Forming - An Interesting Tool for the Nonwoven Industry"
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Speaker: Kristian Salminen, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd

      Wet-lay technology has been used in the nonwoven industry for several decades. The technology enables manufacturing of strong products at high production rates. The main disadvantages of wet-lay technology are 1) low fiber consistency during forming (high water consumption) 2) limited quality range and length of fibers that can be utilized (due to strong flocculation tendency) and 3) high density of the final product. In our presentation we will show how foam forming technology enables improved structural uniformity, increase of fiber consistency during forming, expanding the raw material range used in the products and control the density of the final product. We will also show that controlling the main characteristics of foam (air content, bubble size distribution, foam stability and foam chemistry) opens up new opportunities to tailor the structure and performance of the manufactures products.

  36. PIMA Management (M)

    M6: Superintendent's Roundtable

    1. "TBA"
    2. "TBA"
    3. "TBA"
  37. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM4A-RPTA4: Panel Discussion: Converting and Optimizing Stock Prep Systems

    Session Chair: , Process Training Consultants, Inc
    1. "TBA"
    2. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Amec Foster Wheeler
    3. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Consultant
    4. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Kruger

      Machines that are converted from recycled printing and writing grades to packaging grades will require a total redesign of their existing stock prep line. Every unit operation needs to be reviewed and updated to manage the different fiber sources required. This session will feature manufacturing professionals, suppliers and engineering consultants that will discuss their experiences in converting recycled fiber lines to make suitable packaging grade pulp from OCC or other similar fiber sources. Attendees will have the opportunity to ask questions of the expert panel and to participate in the discussions by contributing their own experiences. Those who are new to the industry will also find the discussions to be of interest because of the in-depth coverage of the basic unit operations involved.

  38. International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC)

    IPPC4: Paper as a Stochastic Material

    Session Chair: Jean-Francis Bloch, Grenoble INP
    1. "Introduction to the Stochastic Nature of Paper"
    2. "Exploration of Relationships between Mechanical and Physical Heterogeneity of Paperboards"
      Speaker: , USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory
      Author: , Miami University

      Heterogeneity of cellulose fiber materials has long been observed and considered to be a contributing factor of poor performance. Quantification of physical heterogeneity has progressed so that non-uniformity can characterized at the fiber scale. While lagging, mechanical heterogeneity is now capable of equilibrium examination at the millimeter scale. The objective of this work was to explore relationships between mechanical and physical heterogeneity of several commercial paperboards. Dogbone shaped paperboard specimens, with active central portion 45 mm x 140 mm, were prepared with a laser-printed speckle pattern. Local grammage was evaluated with radiography and local thickness was determined by non-contacting twin laser profilometry. Subsequently, the specimens were tensile tested to failure while capturing surface deformations with stereo digital image correlation (DIC) equipment. Finally, the failure region of the specimen was re-examined with radiography. The resolution of the DIC system was less than 50 µε which was capable of characterizing the heterogeneous tensile strain fields. The strain fields were used to perform local tensile stiffness identification with the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). VFM is based on the Principle of Virtual Work and ensures global equilibrium by equating internal and external work. Assuming a stiffness variation based on a Fourier series, the series coefficients were determined and used to reconstruct tensile stiffness contours. The number of series terms were limited by the amount of DIC strain data, but were usually more than 2000. Interpolation between coordinate systems was employed to create a common coordinate system for grammage, caliper and stiffness. In turn, local density and local specific stiffness were determined. Finally, knowledge of failure location completed the data set. Different failure mechanisms were observed. As expected, some materials failed in low grammage regions. Other materials failed in regions with large stiffness gradients. Relationships between physical and mechanical heterogeneity were not universally present.

    3. "Fibre-Level Model of Paper Roughness"
      Speaker: , University of Manchester
      Author: , University of Manchester

      It is well established that the roughness of paper influences printing characteristics, and a significant literature relates measurements of surface topography with those of print quality. The literature provides also a rich family of models for the structure of paper, which have typically been developed by application of statistical geometry and probabilistic methodologies for the well-defined case of random fibre networks. This family of models has been developed over more than 50 years and has provided expressions for almost every structural characteristic of the sheet including pore size, network uniformity and various quantifiers of inter-fibre contact in terms of fibre morphology and fundamental properties of the sheet such as grammage and density or porosity. Although several theoretical approaches have been applied to the modelling and analysis of paper roughness, to the knowledge of the authors, no accurate model has been developed that explicitly gives roughness parameters in terms of fibre morphology and sheet properties; the only model that attempts to do this includes sheet grammage as a variable, which is manifestly in correct for characterisation of a surface property. We shall address this directly in the full paper. We present a theoretical analysis of paper roughness assuming that the distribution of surface asperities is described by a negative exponential distribution; full justification of this assumption will be provided. On this basis, we proceed to derive expressions for the roughness averages Ra and Rq and subsequently show that there is a linear relationship between them. Further, we provide expressions allowing estimation of the effect of fibre variables on roughness parameters. We complete our analysis with a comparison of theory with the results of simple experiments using handsheets; the agreement is excellent.

    4. "Joint Distribution of Local Porosity and Local Tortuosity in Sack Paper"
      Speaker: , Ulm University
      Author: , Graz University of Technology
      Author: Peter Leitl, Bionic Surface Technologies GmbH
      Author: Ulrich Hirn, Graz University of Technology
      Author: , Graz University of Technology
      Author: ,

      The porosity of paper is a crucial quantity for most applications. Correspondingly, it is highly desirable to establish to which extent the porosity of paper influences strongly related properties such as the air permeance. Current approaches to quantify the porosity suffer from two conceptual shortcomings: Firstly, as a rule, the porosity is indirectly inferred from air permeance measurements; this standard assumes a correlation between these two quantities that is not exactly known. Secondly, a paper sheet is commonly associated to a single porosity value, even though paper can be markedly heterogeneous up to the centimeter scale. Here, we specifically address these aspects by asking (i) how the porosity of paper varies locally and (ii) how these local porosity variations govern further morphological characteristics being important for the local air permeance. For this purpose, we statistically analyze the 3D pore space extracted from the microstructure of sack kraft paper; this microstructure is reconstructed using X-ray micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) for a volume of more than 4mm2 × paper thickness with voxel sizes of either 1.2 or 1.5 µm. The porosity values of multiple, non-overlapping cutouts of the sample are determined to obtain a distribution of local porosities. The considered cutouts vary in their lateral extensions, but contain the fiber material across the entire sheet thickness. Moreover, we evaluate each of the cutouts in terms of the mean geodesic tortuosity, which measures the windedness of pathways through the pore space and, thus, is an important morphological characteristic regarding air permeances. Our analysis clearly shows a negative correlation between local porosity and tortuosity for the considered sample. Using a copula approach, we model the joint probability distribution of local porosity and local tortuosity. This model quantifies the porosity-tortuosity correlation and allows, e.g., for a prediction of local tortuosities for given local porosities.

  39. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM4B-PC4: QCS Optimization

    Session Chair: , Georgia-Pacific LLC
    1. "How to Perform Sensor Correlation "The Right Way"?"
      Speaker: , ABB

      Dynamic Sensor Correlation is needed at every paper mill to ensure the online sensor measurements match their quality laboratory results. Very often we hear papermakers’ complaints such as “we can’t maintain accurate and repeatable results between the lab and the online sensors; what’s wrong with the online sensor measurements?� Papermakers usually assume the only contributing factor to the “error� between their lab and the online measurement is the online sensor itself. This presentation will point out typical reasons affecting sensor correlation results such as: • Discrepancies between measurements from the online sensors and the quality control laboratory • Sample and lab testing procedures don’t follow the TAPPI standard • Improper correlation methods used for some sensors • High process variability This presentation will address papermakers’ misconceptions and show them that the deviation between the sensor and the lab mainly comes from the following areas: “Sensor Accuracy, Process Variations and Lab Test Accuracy�. The papermakers will learn how to set proper expectations for sensor correlation results based on their sensor, process and lab conditions. A case study will be presented discussing why a papermaker couldn’t achieve repeatable coat weight correlation results. Test results have shown that the majority of the variability comes from the machine’s high process variability and inconsistent lab test results. Sensor Correlation Services audit processes and methods for sensor correlation in order to improve the accuracy of quality measurement and to comply with TAPPI standards. A proper Sensor Correlation process puts paper mills on the right path to success by ensuring measurements from the online sensors and the quality control laboratory closely track each other. Proper sensor correlation improves quality measurement accuracy, enhances paper machine performance by significant savings in raw material usage and increases efficiency by reducing rejects and energy consumption. These are the ultimate goals for all papermakers.

    2. "Moisture Management and Optimization from Headbox to Reel in Papermaking Process"
      Speaker: , Valmet

      During the last decades paper industry has made significant improvements in paper quality and production efficiency. Continuously developing Quality Control Systems (QCS) are one reason for improvements. End users have increasing demands for quality at an optimized cost level with reduced basis weights. In that sense paper and board production faces many challenges in terms of energy, production and quality. Traditionally, QCS has focused on measuring the final quality of the paper, but increasing demands create a need to monitor the process more comprehensively. Moisture management along the papermaking process is one of the key parameters affecting machine speed, runnability and production costs. Measurements and awareness of dryness or moisture content from headbox to reel provides means to optimize the complete drying process in a new comprehensive way. Coordinated control of drying from wire to drying sections makes cost-optimized control decisions possible due to great energy saving potential between mechanical water removal and evaporative drying. To see the full picture of how the dryness of paper web is developing, embedded sensors in foil type construction are used in the wire section. In addition to that, multiple sensors installed along the machine from wet-press to final drying groups complete the moisture monitoring with the traditional scanning moisture measurement applications. This paper will detail possibilities and experiences of wet end moisture measurements completing the moisture management in QCS system and how the information is utilized in daily production. Results from recent analyses will be presented.

    3. "Simplified Automatic Nonlinear Grade Change Control for Paper Machines"
      Speaker: , Honeywell International
      Author: , KapStone Paper
      Author: Johan Backstrom, Honeywell International
      Author: Michael Forbes, Honeywell International

      The demands of the paper industry on a QCS (quality control system) are to enable the papermakers to produce optimum quality paper at the lowest cost and to maximize production. One method of maximizing production is to minimize production losses. A significant portion of production losses are during grade changes as papermakers try to minimize the duration of the grade change, avoid off specification production and avoid sheet breaks. To address the strict demands on the QCS, the system’s grade change package incorporates modern technologies such as: the ability to predict the whole MV (manipulated variable) and CV (controlled variable) trajectories, a first principles paper machine model to capture the nonlinearity of the grade change and the option to conduct a grade change with supervisory machine direction multivariable MPC (model predictive controls). Employment of these technologies comes with configuration complexity. The challenge is to have a grade change package with these latest technologies and have the papermakers easily configure, understand and use it. A simplified nonlinear multivariable grade change package is discussed in this paper. It incorporates all the technologies discussed above and it is easy to configure, understand and it is used by papermakers worldwide. Grade change times as compared to the previous QCS at KapStone Paper in Longview, WA shall be discussed in this paper along with the ease of startup and maintainability of the simplified automatic nonlinear grade change package.

  40. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    RPTA4-PM4A: Panel Discussion: Converting and Optimizing Stock Prep Systems

    1. "TBA"
    2. "TBA"
    3. "TBA"
    4. "TBA"
  41. Coating &amp; Graphic Arts (CGA)

    CGA4: Starting the Sustainability Cycle: From Linear to Circular

    Session Chair: , Omya International
    1. "The Best of Times – How Brand Owner Sustainability Commitments Are Driving Sustainable Packaging Innovations and Commercialization"
      Speaker: , KoolEarth Solutions Inc

      In the face of unprecedented global environmental challenges large corporations have, over the past few years, formulated and publicly communicated aggressive sustainability goals. In particular, many brand owners have made strong commitments towards addressing environmental impacts due to plastic packaging (such as land and ocean litter) and to increase recycling of packaging. This presentation will discuss several of these corporate commitments and their impact on the future of sustainable packaging, with a particular emphasis on paper-based packaging.

    2. "Working with Smallholders to Achieve Positive Impacts in Sourcing Forest Products"
      Speaker: , American Forest Foundation

      Much of the energy in the conversation around the use of forest products has focused on the potentially negative environmental impacts. There is an opportunity, however, for the end users of forest products to achieve measurable, tangible and positive impacts for local communities AND the environment. In most parts of the world, achieving this requires thinking more deeply about how to work with the tens of millions of families and individuals who own small parcels of forest. Using the United States as a case study, this session will introduce attendees to “Family Owned Forests” and explain how Brands, suppliers and others can work with forest landowners to achieve their sustainability goals.

    3. "Connecting Brand Sustainability Goals with Forest Products"
      Speaker: , GreenBlue

      The pulp and paper industry is in a unique position as ever to help Brands achieve their sustainability goals. More and more Brands are establishing aspirational and time-bound goals that can be directly tied the use of products that are sourced and manufactured from responsibly managed forests: recyclability, compostability, climate change, biodiversity, and much more. This session will explore a new platform called Forests in Focus that is designed to put these benefits into context for Brands and help facilitate this dialogue with their suppliers.

    4. "Disruptive Trends in Food Packaging?"
      Speaker: , Omya International

      Disruptive Trends in Food Packaging?

  42. Papermaking Fundamentals (PF)

    PF3: Novel Production Processes

    Session Chair: , AstenJohnson
    1. "Superior Bulk Cartonboard with Three-Layer Headbox"
      Speaker: , Valmet
      Author: , Valmet
      Author: Teuvo Virkkunen, Valmet
      Author: Mika Viljanmaa, Valmet

      Superior Bulk Cartonboard With Three-Layer Headbox Maarit Lahtinen, Maarit Tukiainen, Teuvo Virkkunen, Mika Viljanmaa Valmet Technologies Abstract The purpose of this study is to introduce a new technique to produce three-layered lightweight cartonboard using a single three-layer headbox and only one hybrid forming unit. Cartonboard is typically a multiply product and the final properties can be improved by choosing the right type of fibers for each ply. Previously, Valmet has introduced layering technologies for producing two-layer paperboard sheets either with or without a water layering technology. Now, layering techniques have taken a step forward by introducing a three-layer headbox to produce multilayered cartonboard end products with or without the water layer. The concept has been studied at Valmet Paper Technology Center in Finland by using a single three-layer headbox and one hybrid forming unit. Bleached hardwood pulp was used in the surface layers and bleached softwood pulp or bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp (BCTMP) in the middle layer. The three layered cartonboard was pre-calendered with either hard-nip and metal belt calendering. The calendering results for three-layered cartonboard were compared to the unlayered cartonboard, where the same pulps were used as a homogenous mixture. The findings for the three-layered cartonboard compared to the unlayered cartonboard indicate that it is possible to increase the bulk and that there are potential raw material savings with novel layering technologies such as the three-layer headbox and only one hybrid forming unit using either hard nip or metal belt calendering.

    2. "Textile-Like Materials with Foam Forming on a Paper Machine"
      Author: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Speaker: Claes Holmqvist, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden

      Textile and non-woven industries are experiencing an increasing consumer demand for sustainability. At the same time, the paper industry needs to find new uses for existing production infrastructure in cases when the demand for traditional products decreases. Non-wovens have a wide property space range compared to paper, especially towards high smoothness and hand feel properties, but are typically not possible to produce at comparable production speeds. Moreover, many non-woven processes (e.g. wet-laid) are designed to use much longer fibres (from 8 mm and up) than what is typically manageable on a paper machine (typically optimized for fibre lengths less than 3 mm). A key for obtaining more textile like feel (smoothness, hand feel, drape etc.) of paper, which is typically stiff and dense, is to introduce longer fibres. When the fibres in the suspension becomes longer, the amount of flocculation typically becomes a problem. However, if the fibres are separated by particles (such as air bubbles), their mobility is reduced and flocculation and spinning of long fibres may be minimized. Thus, air assisted forming on paper machines, i.e. using a bubbly flow as the transporting medium, may be used as an enabling technology for a number of different applications, yielding improved bulk and formation as well as allowing the introduction of new raw materials which are otherwise difficult to suspend and disperse. In this study, it was demonstrated how this concept could be used to introduce a large fraction of 8 mm synthetic fibres into the papermaking process without major system modifications. The result was a soft sheet (in terms of Emtec TS7) with comparatively high strength.

    3. "Pilot Scale Production of Interactive Zinc Oxide Paper and Its Multiple Applicability"
      Speaker: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: Karl Håkansson, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden

      Large scale production of paper offers both the blessing and curse associated with the economy of scale, i.e. while offering a low production cost it also requires the production of large volumes. To be able to offer a single material to multiple markets we actively searched a paper filler material with several interactive properties that can be exploited in different ways depending on the context during use. Zinc oxide filler particles meet these interactive requirements since they can respond to electrical voltage, photonic illumination and mechanical bending. In this work we report on successful pilot scale papermaking trials to produce papers filled with zinc oxide tetrapodal microwhiskers. The FEX pilot paper machine (web width 30 cm) was run at a low speed (100 m/min) and showed good retention at 15%, 30%, and 45% zinc oxide filler levels. The produced material looked white as normal printing paper to the naked eye offering no clues about its versatile interactive properties. The zinc oxide paper was further explored in selected applications spanning photocatalytic filters to purify air and water, UV sensors, and anticounterfeiting material for packaging.

  43. Process Control (PC)

    PC4-PM4B: QCS Optimization

    1. "How to Perform Sensor Correlation "The Right Way"?"
    2. "Moisture Management and Optimization from Headbox to Reel in Papermaking Process"
    3. "Simplified Automatic Nonlinear Grade Change Control for Paper Machines"
  44. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PA4: Novel Wet Strength Uses

    Session Chair: , Solenis
    1. "Intro to Wet Strength"
    2. "Increased Machine Efficiency Using a Novel, Structured Wet Strength Resin"
      Speaker: , Nalco Water
      Author: , Nalco Water

      Wet strength resins are essential performance chemicals used in the production of tissue, towel, paper, board, and specialty papers. Wet strength resins allow these types of paper products to retain a significant amount of their tensile strength when wet. A recent innovation has resulted in a step-change in wet strength performance using a technology that employs novel raw materials and a unique manufacturing process. This unique technology has proven to reduce resin dosages by 20 – 40% while maintaining wet tensile strength targets and achieving higher maximum wet and dry tensile strength. Lower resin dosage can reduce cost-in-use and reduce the contents of both volatile organic compounds (VOC) and chlorinated by-products. This new technology also provides increased retention, drainage, and machine speed while maintaining product quality specifications, allowing optimization of retention, drainage, and formation programs. Another benefit is reduced white water foaming compared to conventional resin products. Higher maximum wet tensile strength allows for new grade development, fiber substitution, and other operational improvements such as improved drying and speed capacity through reduced refining. This technology has been shown to be more efficient than other products in all grades, furnishes, and systems. Secondary benefits of reduced resin usage rates are reduced delivery cycles and more efficient inventory management. This paper will discuss the commercialization of this new wet strength technology.

    3. "Lignin Based Resins for High-Pressure Paper Laminates"
      Speaker: , SUNY-ESF
      Author: , SUNY-ESF

      Paper-based high-pressure laminates are frequently used for furniture, construction applications and outdoor applications for decorative purposes. The core of these products is typically made of stacked kraft paper sheets which are impregnated with phenol–formaldehyde (PF) resin. PF resins are synthetic polymers of phenol, a petrochemical products and formaldehyde, which is classified as a carcinogen by the EPA. Therefore, studies have focused on replacing PF resins by resins of similar properties and performance capabilities with less or without phenol and/or formaldehyde. In our studies, lignin-furfural resins are proposed as sustainable and safe phenol and formaldehyde-free alternatives. Unmodified lignins, recovered from hydrolysates of the hot water extraction (HWE) process of select angiosperms; sugar maple (SM), willow (W), mixture of northern hardwoods (NHW), miscanthus, (MS) and wheat straw (WS) were used as raw materials. The biorefinery lignins were characterized for their chemical composition and inherent properties via wet chemistry and instrumental techniques (HSQC, SEC, TGA and DSC). Resins prepared from the various lignins were tested for their mechanical properties on softwood and hardwood kraft papers for their reinforcement ability as well as wettability. Resins prepared from MS and SMAH lignin showcase better mechanical properties compared to other biorefinery lignins and are also comparable with PF resin. The good mechanical strength of resins prepared from MS and SMAH is attributed to higher S/G ratio and free phenolic hydroxyl group content – features that determine reactivity of the lignin. Lignin use is currently limited to energy production and is otherwise underutilized. However, being the most abundant natural aromatic polymer, lignin valorization is an important step towards building a more sustainable world. This work is aimed at establishing lignin as a promising raw material for renewable phenol- and formaldehyde-free resins for use in high-pressure laminates.

  45. Break

  46. NETInc (N)

    N5: Functional Finishing

    Session Chair: Seshadri Ramkumar, Texas Tech University
    1. "Tensile, Shear and Bending Properties of the Crepe-de-chine Industrial Fabrics"
      Speaker: , NMIMS
      Author: , NMIMS
      Author: V. Subramanium, Jaya Engineering College

      The importance of the crepe de chine fabrics with reference to the mechanical properties has been quantified. In our study 32 different samples were generated by using 8 different varieties of yarn and the objective evaluation of the above samples shows that the important mechanical properties of the fabrics such as bending, tensile, shear and compression are influenced by the yarn characteristics. This study also covers the effect of finishing and degumming of the grey fabrics on properties of the crepe- de- chine fabrics. The basic aim of the work is to measure the mechanical and surface properties and to relate these objective measurements to the quality and performance characteristics of the fabrics. Two types of crepe "“de-chine fabrics (grey and finished), woven with various levels of twist in the weft yarn ranging from 240 to 340 turns per cm, were employed for the study. The finished fabric mechanical properties are entirely dependent on the grey fabric sett used, twist in the weft yarn and the degumming of the grey fabrics. Hence, ultimately quality requirements of the crepe-de-chine fabrics are controlled by the fabric sett, twist in the weft yarn and degumming that it undergoes.

    2. "Enhanced Functional Nanofiber Substrates"
      Speaker: , Texas Tech University
      Author: Seshadri Ramkumar, Texas Tech University

      Nanofibers have been touted for numerous applications due to its customizable physicochemical characteristics, large surface area to volume ratio (about 103 higher than microfiber), flexibility, light in weight, small diameter (300-1000 nm), and small pore size (< 3 µm). Among all existing nanofiber webs technologies, electrospinning is one of the most popular and simple methods to produce functional nanofiber webs. In addition, electrospinning nanofiber can be easily incorporated with biological, electrical, optical, and magnetic functionalities, for example inorganic nanoparticles (titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, graphite oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotube, etc.), polymeric nanoparticles and biological active agents (RNAi, siRNA and plasmid DNA). The composite functional and smart nanofiber webs have been used in tissue engineering, drug delivery, microsensor, lithium-ion battery, nanostructured piezoelectric materials, fuel cell, etc. Functional nanofibers have emerged due to their adsorption and catalytical capabilities. In case of titanium oxide incorporated nanofibers, there is a requirement of focused spectra such as UV light. Recent research in our group have found that by comingling with functional particles, catalytic functions can be achieved within visible spectra. Results from novel experiments will be presented in this presentation.

    3. "Functional Finishes for Nonwovens and Advanced Textiles"
      Speaker: , Resil Chemicals

      Nonwovens and cellulosic fabrics provide very good breathability between clothes and skin and generally perceived to be more comfortable than synthetic fabrics and are preferred for a wide range of general clothing where handle and comfort are important. However, some nonwovens based on the fiber content absorb water into the fibre structure and become heavy leading to longer drying times. This leads to stretching of the fabric and sticking of the fabric to the skin leading to discomfort. Owing to this behaviour, cellulosic based nonwovens are not promoted for high performance sportswear. Moisture management is one of the key performance criteria of active sportswear and is defined as the ability of a garment to transport moisture away from the skin to the outer surface of the garment during perspiration, so as to make the wearer feel comfortable. In the garment"“skin microclimate, absorption of sweat by the garment that includes nonwoven liners and its transportation through and across the fabric structure where it is evaporated are related to clothing comfort perceptions. In this work, a unique approach is developed to obtain controlled moisture evaporation in cellulosic fibres and nonwoven liners by retaining its natural softness and providing enhanced comfort. Moisture management is addressed by efficient horizontal wicking and controlled transverse wicking thereby maintaining moisturizing levels at skin-clothing interface.

  47. Process Control (PC)

    PC5: Data Analytics Application

    Session Chair: , ABB
    Session Chair: , OSIsoft
    1. "Creating Adaptive Predictions for Packaging Critical Quality Parameters Using Advanced Analytics and Machine Learning"
      Author: , Solenis
      Speaker: , Solenis
      Author: Chitta Ranjan, ProcessMiner

      The primary objectives of packaging manufacturers are: to achieve consistent strength targets, to maximize production, and to reduce costs through better fiber utilization, chemical optimization, energy reduction, among others. With advanced sensor technologies, mills are collecting vast amounts of real-time data that can provide more visibility into their processes than ever before. Turning this visibility into actionable insight is the key to meet the above objectives. To achieve these objectives, it is imperative to develop a predictive modeling system for quality measures. However, despite its importance little attention has been given to this area. We, therefore, developed a novel AI and Machine Learning based prediction system to provide real-time quality predictions. The prediction system is adaptive meaning that it updates under changing machine conditions, and self-evolving, which learns over time to improve the prediction accuracy. These predictions enable instant on-the-fly preventive and/or corrective actions based on more informed process changes, quick change detection, and process control and optimization in paper mills. In this paper, we discuss the opportunities for value creation through the availability and use of real-time quality predictions in the mills.

    2. "Smart Paper Machine Analysis Reveals Center Lining Truths"
      Author: , Trimble Forestry Europe Oy
      Presenter: , Trimble Forestry Europe Oy
      Author: Michael Gee, Trimble Inc.

      Process stabilization is critical for all pulp & paper processes to ensure uniform quality and minimize production costs. Centerlining is a commonly used methodology that utilizes desired levels or settings of selected key process variables to maintain consistent and in-spec production. Advanced analysis practices are important to maintain paper machine stabilization. However, to ensure optimal production speed, uniform quality and profitable production, paper machine Operations must not only understand how key variables affect the core process within a set of ranges or control limits, but how all relevant processes and other (measurable) external factors affect each other. Truly understanding the interrelationships of all process analysis elements, and not just final product, is crucial to optimizing pulp and paper production. In multi grade processes, increased variability, lower production, or other adverse process variable changes should not automatically lead to modified centerline range limits to accommodate actually performance. It is necessary to have the analysis tools in place to quickly identify root causes of why the slippage in process variables that enable operators to react quickly to early stage process problems. Once the causes have been analyzed and the process is stabilized, set limits can then be refined if necessary. Examples of how to improved quality and increase speed while reducing energy consumption and raw material costs will be examined. This presentation will discuss the importance of revealing big picture details and effective ways of illuminating data intelligence when establishing centerline control ranges — and what can happen when cause and effect relationships are not quickly and accurately identified.

    3. "Smart vs Big Data Analysis: How to Get More Out of Less in Board Strength Modelling?"
      Speaker: , Valmet
      Author: , Valmet
      Author: Pasi Virtanen, Valmet
      Author: Jari Paanasalo, Valmet

      In traditional paper and board-making trouble-shooting and optimization, the procedure has been to gather as many possible spread data and find out the way to make sense of them regarding possible inputs and respective outputs. After that some filtering level is applied in order recognize what is inside average performance and what is out of that. In that sense, software experts produce plotted reports for paper and board-making experts to receive feedback and insights about what to do (and where in the process) recognizing which variables to play with and how to proceed with it. That change requires significant amount of resources (i.e.: measurements and instruments) as well as time and multiple iterations until finding root-cause relationships. Big data handling includes the development of soft sensors and high level of integration at mill site gives the opportunity to potentially determine or predict the response in real time when and if the correct set of variables have been preselected. It is not easy to determine the correct set of variables for a multi-linear regression model and must be remembered that first, second and third order of magnitude phenomena can appear in combination with strong “background noise” from process. Instead of Big Data we would like to talk about Smart Data. Smart data to be able to do modelling, diagnosis, analysis, etc. with acceptable accuracy. This article attempts to predict strength responses in paper and board making by addressing minimum set of variables that would have most relevant impact from process to final product accounting first principle criteria and recognizing the second order responses (variability, background noise). It is expected that optimal results might not be achieved in simulations first attempt but possible alternative tools and methods can be discussed and/or proposed for future works with improved solutions.

  48. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PM5A-PA5: Papermakers Roundtable

    Session Chair: , John A. Neun, LLC
    1. "Roundtable Discussion"

      The round table forum provides participants an opportunity to discuss technical problems with peers. Few problems are truly unique and fellow round table participants usually have relevant experiences. Experience leads to solutions, or at least to a direction to follow. Papermaker roundtables are a 70-year tradition of the Papermaker’s Committee, now the Paper Technology and Operations Committee. The interchange of technology and ideas is a fundamental mission of the committee, and the roundtable is a key element of that mission. For the 10th straight year, the Papermaker’s Roundtable will be held consecutively with the PIMA Superintendent’s Roundtable, forming an afternoon of operations and technology interchange and discussion.

  49. Papermaking Fundamentals (PF)

    PF4: Novel Application of Cellulose-based Materials

    Session Chair: Claes Holmqvist, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
    1. "Electroactive Papers, Films, Filaments, Aerogels, and Hydrogels to Realize the Future of Bio-based Electronics"
      Speaker: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: Karl Håkansson, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: Andreas Fall, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: Pia Wågberg, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden

      Biobased Electronics is an emerging field of research and innovation where electronic functionalities are added to biobased materials. The current study focuses on five techniques that can be used to mix pulp or nanocellulose with active materials such as conducting polymers or interactive particles, resulting in a material with synergetic properties. The techniques are papermaking, nanocellulose film casting, nanocellulose filament spinning, nanocellulose aerogels and nanocellulose hydrogels. Each of these techniques offer specific advantages and drawbacks compared to clean room production of electronics and printed electronics, while the overarching advantage is given by the new possibility to tailor the 3D shape and mechanical properties of the electronic component. In the presentation we will discuss what is driving the development of Biobased Electronics and the new challenges that are brought with the new paradigm. Several examples will be given on the synergetic effects that may arise when cellulose is mixed with active materials, and we argue that these can have a significant impact on the next generation of paper products.

    2. "Production and Evaluation of Paper with High Fiber Orientation for Paper-Based Construction Materials"
      Speaker: , Technische Universität Darmstadt
      Author: Samuel Schabel, Technische Universität Darmstadt

      In Darmstadt, the use of paper as a building material is being researched in interdisciplinary projects. One of the manifold challenges is the improvement of the static behavior of tubes and boards in areas subject to high loads. Here, the fiber orientation plays a decisive role. In 2009, Dolatshahi and Kortschot presented an apparatus for producing fully aligned handsheets. By letting a capillary traverse above a wire, and applying a highly dilute suspension to the wire, their apparatus was able to achieve an average fiber angle of 7 °. The size of the produced paper was 140 mm ∙ 20 mm. Inspired by this work a test rig has been developed to produce paper with a size of about 1560 mm ∙ 260 mm. The fiber orientation is achieved by an elongational flow and is influenced by factors such as the consistency, the viscosity, the jet-to-wire-velocity-ratio and the nozzle geometry. As rapid dewatering is crucial the vacuum zone had to be redesigned. It moves parallel to the traversing nozzle and allows a precise positioning of the vacuum slots. The slots are arranged in the direction of the water flow to fix the fibers at the contact point. The evaluation of the paper consists of two steps: In the first step, the fiber orientation is determined by image analysis. In the second step strength properties are measured. The results are used to extend the strength models for paper. In addition to the strength properties, the porosity can be influenced by the layer structure of the paper. This is advantageous for the adhesion properties with other components or materials. Current investigations pursue the question of whether a further improvement can be achieved through the introduction of synthetic fibers.

    3. "Cellulose Nanocrystals as Promising Nanomaterial for Proton Exchange Membranes in Fuel Cell Application"
      Author: , Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
      Speaker: Yuvraj Singh Negi, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

      Growing interest in the development and utilization of green and sustainable nano-composite materials in different applications have motivated researchers and scientists for the use of biopolymers in the Fuel cell technology which is presently the most promising alternative source of power generation to meet the increasing demand of energy in various sectors. In this regard cellulose nanocrystals, due to their surpassing features of high aspect ratio, large surface area and excellent mechanical properties along with biocompatibility, non-toxicity, chemical resistivity, availability of abundant economic sources and ease for surface modification, can be effectively utilized for fabrication of polymer nano-composites as suitable proton exchange membrane in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). Taking this into account, our study demonstrate the successful utilization of nano-crystalline cellulose, extracted from groundnut shells an agrowaste material, as reinforcing filler in poly(ether ether ketone) based polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane in fuel cells. To execute their applicability, solvent casted membranes have been investigated for different physicochemical and electrochemical properties through respective techniques including Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR), X Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Field Emission Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of nano crystalline cellulose improves the proton conductivity of membranes by providing suitable pathway for easy transport of protons via interacting though their surface functionalities with ionic moieties of polymer matrix. The CNC based nano-composite membranes exhibit good compatibility .and display proton conductivity up to 0.186S/cm which is comparable to Nafion 117. The fabricated membranes also possess good mechanical, thermal and oxidative stability which make it feasible as polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications.

  50. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM5B: Auxiliary Considerations for Conversions and Optimization

    Session Chair: , Jacobs
    1. "The Importance of Precision Alignment During Upgrades & Conversions"
      Speaker: , OASIS Alignment Services

      With the evolving market demands for paper – decreased use of printing and writing paper and increased demand for paperboard, containerboard and cartonboard, many paper makers are upgrading their older paper machines in order to produce more profitable paper grades. From start to finish of an upgrade project, precision alignment is critical to the success of the conversion. In this presentation, you will learn the importance of alignment from preplanning - to include field engineering documentation and component verification – through the final alignment verification prior to and after start up. Additionally, you will be provided with an overview of how alignment can affect each section of the paper machine. Common process and production issues will be discussed along with the alignment techniques and technologies that help to eliminate these costly problems.

    2. "Water & Air Ingress Into Paper Machine Circulating Oil"
      Speaker: , SKF

      Water & Air Ingress Into Paper Machine Circulating Oil Water ingress into the circulating oil on paper machines can significantly reduce the operating life of the dryer and felt roll, bearings as well bearings and gears in gearboxes driving these dryers. This water ingress is typically the result of steam leaks and wash-downs. Conventional oil circulation systems are only about 30% efficient at removing this water. Air ingress into the circulating oil on these machines typically results from poor oil handling procedures. Air in the oil can lead to foaming and reduced apparent viscosity of the oil which is also detrimental to proper lubrication of the bearings and gears. Conventional oil circulation systems are only about 30% efficient at removing this air. Plate type separator reservoirs can remove 90% to 95% of the free water and air in the oil. Implementing a water and air removal system will typically pay for itself in less than one year in terms of unplanned downtime savings. Robert Read

    3. "Best Practices for Building Ventilation Improvements and Efficiency"
      Speaker: , Enerquin Air

      A significant amount of water vapor is generated by the forming section at the Wet End of all paper machines. This vapor must be effectively captured by the building heating and ventilation system in order to prevent condensation phenomena inside the building and ensure proper environmental conditions. While all paper machine hall ventilation solutions are unique, a successful ventilation system must meet the following key requirements: • Maintain optimal conditions for operator safety and comfort • Protect building and auxiliary equipment from corrosion and deterioration Linerboard stock temperatures typically run as high as 140F in order to improve drainage and increase pressing efficiency. As water vapor pressure increases exponentially with increasing water temperature, the amount of water vapor present at the Wet End of linerboard machines tends to be greater thus increasing the requirements of the building ventilation system. A summary of best practices for building ventilation and case studies are presented. The focus of this presentation applies to building ventilation rebuild projects, however the principles and practices may be applied to greenfield projects as well.

  51. PIMA Management (M)

    M7: Safety

    1. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Domtar
    2. "TBA"
      Speaker: , C&R Compliance LLC
    3. "TBA"
  52. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PA5-PM5A: Papermakers Roundtable

    1. "Roundtable Discussion"
  53. International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC)

    IPPC5: Paper Chemistry to Improve Physical Performance

    Session Chair: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
    1. "From Thermally Self-Repairing to Stimulus-Responsive Barrier Coatings on Paper using Renewable Polymer Resources"
      Speaker: , Technische Universität Darmstadt
      Author: , Technische Universität Darmstadt
      Author: Maximillian Nau, nau@cellulose.tu-darmstadt.de
      Author: Andreas Geißler, Technische Universität Darmstadt

      Barrier-coatings are important for a number of applications of different paper-grades used e.g. in packaging. Using natural polymer resources, such as cellulose-esters or polymers derived from hydroxypropyl-cellulose, such macromolecules can be used to coat the surface of paper substrates and render these surfaces hydrophobic and even superhydrophobic. In this talk we present novel strategies for biogenic barrier coatings that eventually can restore ("self-repair"�) a given (super)hydrophobic property, even after mechanical or thermal impact. Distinct examples will be explained, where we fundamental studies were carried-out on functional barrier coatings on paper substrates, which consist of a pre-layer made from fiber immobilized alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) and a top layer consisting of cellulose- and hydroxipropyl cellulose-ester. The procedure of polymer preparation, paper coating as well as extensive characterization of such superhydrophobic coatings on paper will be shown. Because the melting point of the used AKD is higher than the corresponding melting temperatures of used cellulosic materials, the fiber-immobilized AKD can be used as a hidden "structural guide"�. If both layers are molten and temperature is lowered below the Tm of the AKD, the latter crystallizes to form well-defined crystalline domains on the fiber with nanoscale dimensions. A further cooling below the Tm of the top layer leads to a co-crystallization of this material along the below given structure. Hence, the structure-guiding motif, which drives the formation of such surface morphologies on top of the paper fibers, is hidden in the immobilized AKD on the paper fiber. Thermal restoration of superhydrophobic properties of these crystalline films can be achieved multiple times, even if the layers are treated with strong mechanical impacts. Because any kind of coating method for both layers can be employed, this approach is also beneficial for a number of technological important applications.

    2. "On Increasing Wet-web Strength with Adhesive Polymers"
      Speaker: , McMaster University
      Author: , McMaster University
      Author: Emil Gustafsson, McMaster University

      The strength of fiber-fiber joints is a critical component of the overall strength of paper. Whereas with freshly formed very wet pulp fiber webs, all evidence suggests there are no fiber-fiber crossings with significant joint strength. With water removal, a point will be reached where fiber-fiber joint strength starts to contribute to the overall wet-web strength. The literature reveals very few examples of polymers that increase fiber-fiber joint strength in freshly formed webs. Herein we summarize the literature and explain why it is so difficult to promote fiber-fiber wet adhesion with polymers. Nevertheless, ongoing research in areas as diverse as tissue engineering scaffolds and biomimetic adhesives gives clues to future developments. Advances in papermachine engineering have lessened the importance of wet-web strength. By contrast, a critical issue in many of the evolving nanocellulose technologies is the strength of objects first formed by aqueous processing, the green strength. For example, 3-D printed nanocellulose objects and ultralow density cellulosic aerogels can be destroyed by capillary forces during drying. There is a need for adhesives that strengthen freshly formed, wet lignocellulosic joints.

    3. "Strength Development During Drying - Possibilities with A Different Wet Strength Testing Approach"
      Speaker: Anton Hagman, RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden

      Wet strength of paper is typically tested on a 25 x 100 mm sample in accordance with ISO 1924-2:1994 and ISO 3781:1983. Due to the low strength of wet samples, using a wider sample rather than standard testing dimensions (ISO 1924-2:1994) enables wet samples to be handled easier and to be mechanically evaluated. By utilizing die cutting, 15 mm wide strips were produced from never dried lab-sheets. These strips were tested using pneumatic clamps normally used for short span tensile tests. The span length was set to 30 mm. Using this span length four sample points could be sequentially measured on each strip. This enabled faster testing using less material (4 test points in 22.5 cm^2 vs. 1 point in 37.5 cm^2). Comparison with the results from standard testing of separate samples showed good agreement. The conservative use of materials opens new possibilities for measurements. For example, the strength development during drying could be assessed. This was done by weighing the wet samples when cut, then letting them dry for different amounts of time, before weighing them again just prior to testing them. Finally, the samples were dried completely in an oven and weighed again. A strength-dryness curve could then be produced. Using this curve, transition points in the strength could be located. These points enable the estimation of when the strength of the paper transitions from being governed by fibre-fibre friction to being controlled by fibre-fibre bonds. It was possible to examine differences between short and long fibre pulps, as well as to characterize the effect of addition of MFC.

    4. "Inducing Order in Deposited Collagen by Tuning Surface Properties of Paper"
      Speaker: , Iowa State University
      Author: , Iowa State University
      Author: Jean-Francis Bloch, Grenoble INP

      Paper has emerged as a versatile neoteric material based on ‘rediscovered’ properties of this rather established material. Ability to control fiber organization and tune surface chemistry presents a platform on which property(ies) of deposited extracellular matrix can be engineering. Collagen is highly adaptable and occurs in different morphologies depending on application. The ability to control morphology and secretion of collagen is of interest in the medical community due to potential uses in wound repair, bone grafting, and biomedical implants. Paper-based cell culture has received significant attention due to its biocompatibility and scalability. Here, collagen secretion from NIH/3T3 fibroblasts on paper substrates with varying roughness by calendering. Paper promotes the secretion of organized collagen albeit will experience degradation over time. Stability can be improved by treating paper with fluoro alkylsilanes, which also maintained its ability to promote organized collagen. Furthermore, highly calendered paper was found to be analogous to glass cover slips, which are characterized by the lack of adhesion due to absence of the petal effect. These results are encouraging and demonstrate our ability to use cellulose substrates to control collagen deposition and organization. The findings in this work has potential applications ranging from dermal implants, in which randomly organized collagen would be ideal, to bone and cartilage implants, where collagen order is critical.

  54. Coating &amp; Graphic Arts (CGA)

    CGA5: Closing the Loop: Moving the Needle Together

    Session Chair: , CP Kelco
    1. "ASTM Protocols"
      Speaker: , Michelman
    2. "Paper Foodservice Packaging in the Recovery Space"
      Speaker: , Foodservice Packaging Institute
    3. "When is Compostibility the Right Option for Paper, and What is Required?"
      Speaker: , Biodegradable Products Institute
    4. "Making Sustainability a Core Business Objective: Domtar’s Approach"
      Speaker: , Domtar

      Making Sustainability a Core Business Objective: Domtar’s Approach

  55. International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC)

    IPPC6: Compressive Behavior of Paper, Board and Boxes

    Session Chair: , University of Manchester
    1. "New Insights into the Compressive Strength of Paper & Board"
      Author: , KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      Speaker: Artem Kulachenko, KTH Royal Institute of Technology

      Packaging, from corrugated board down to individual plies of liners are structurally optimized, primarily to the maximize bending stiffness which is a major contributor to product performance. Potentially, even greater performance gains could be achieved through improved edgewise compressive strength. While compressive strength can be increased using the same methods that are used to improve tensile strength (such as density and fiber orientation), the poor performance of paper products in compression even when tested under constraints indicate that failure initiation is governed by different mechanisms. Two explanations have been proposed: fiber level buckling instability [1] and fiber-fiber bond delamination [2]. However, the presented evidence is non-conclusive. To provide new insights into the mechanisms governing compressive failure of paper and board, we model it using network simulation tools. The pulp characteristics are taken from microtomography scans of real sheets, and the network created using a detailed deposition technique. The effect of changes to bonds, fibers and network characteristics can be studied directly, preserving the inhomogeneous character of the network believed to be a major reason for its weakness. We present an array of tests to validate the model, showing the use of network simulation tools for predicting and improving the compressive strength of more advanced multiply structures. We find that compressive strength is strongly affected by fiber curl but are unable to substantiate the claim that fiber level buckling mechanisms are necessary to capture the compressive behavior. Acknowledgment The financial support from The Swedish Research Council, grant number 2015-05282 is gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. Fellers, C., The significance of structure on the compression behaviour of paper. 1980, PhD Thesis.: Stockholm. 2. Sachs, I.B., Microscopic observations during longitudinal compression loading of single pulp fibers. Tappi, 1986(7): p. 98-102.

    2. "Micro Characterization of Z-Resistance of Papers"
      Speaker: Jean-Francis Bloch, Grenoble INP
      Author: , Iowa State University
      Author: Patrick HUBER, CTP
      Author: Raphael Passas, AGEFPI
      Author: , Iowa State University
      Author: , CTP

      For environmental and economic reasons, the paper industry must reduce its impact in terms of specific consumption of water, raw materials, and energy. One area for improvement is to reduce the weight of paper while improving its mechanical properties, mainly related to local fiber bonds. Their quality depends in particular on the morphological and mechanical properties (mainly flexibility) of the fibers. The objective was to understand the mechanical strength of paper in the thickness direction, through a detailed understanding of inter-fiber bonds. In this approach, the in-situ tests concerned both standard macroscopic measurements on a tensile instrument with a surface area of about 1 cm² and paper samples of about 1 mm² including a few dozen fiber-fiber contacts. Characterization by 3D microtomography of a lightweight fibrous network during an in-situ cleavage test of materials at the millimetre scale imaged in 3D with simultaneous force and displacement measurements, visualization of the evolution of a bond during the mechanical test were the main aims of this project. In-situ mechanical stress (cleavage) X-ray microtomography tests were performed (Fig.2) to provide (i) 3D images for a better understanding of the phenomena and (ii) a quantitative measurement of cleavage forces during the test to trace back, using image analysis, an estimate of the fiber-fiber bond energy. Figure 1: In-situ z-strength test in a X-Ray µCT. The measuring surface is 1 mm². Attachment to the lower jaw (a); Zoom on the sample where the central part of the sample appears; Approach and application of stress to fix the sample and ensure reproducibility of the test (d); Cleavage of the sample in its central part (e). We illustrate the methodology considering different samples (softwood/hardwood for example).

    3. "Compressive Strength of an in S-Shape Fixed Sample - A New Test for Paper Intended to Use for Corrugated Medium"
      Speaker: , Technische Universität Darmstadt
      Author: Samuel Schabel, Technische Universität Darmstadt

      1. Abstract The S-test is a new method to characterize flute base papers. Derived from the SCT-test, the pro-cedure is comparable. Therefore, the S-test offers some advantages compared to the common CMT. This new method is less dependent on handling procedure and the test could be en-closed in an automatic paper lab. Compared with other paper and board parameters, the S-test correlates very well with pa-per grammage and paper thickness. CMT first peak correlates very well, too. Nevertheless, SCT MD correlates less good, although regression analysis still leads to a coefficient of determination of 0.82. Observing CMT end value, the correlation is far less than with CMT first peak. Taking the base paper, manufacturing a corrugated board and measuring the FCT offers a good correlation with the S-test, as long as no fine flutes (D, E or even smaller) are used. The paper will show the repeatability and the reproducibility of the new test compared to figures obtained with CMT and SCT. Due to the advantage in handling, the test is in the procedure to become a German standard (DIN 5014). On ISO level, in 2019 this test shall be proposed to become a new work item proposal (NWIP). 2. Bibliography ISO 7263-1 (CMT A-flute) ISO 7263-2 (CMT B-flute) Spielmann, K.; Gerards, P.: CEPI Containerboard geht neue Wege bei Normierung – Wochenblatt für Papierfabrikation. 144 (2017) 1. Pp. 10.13 DIN 5014 (Compressive strength of an in s-shape fixed sample)

    4. "Links Between BCT and Lifetime for Corrugated Boxes"
      Speaker: Douglas Coffin, Miami University
      Author: , SCION
      Author: Saad Hussain, International Paper

      An important performance characteristic of corrugated boxes is the ability to resist a compressive load for sufficient storage time without failure. In the laboratory, this is evaluated using creep-tests and measuring “lifetime� or time until failure. In design, the box compressive strength (BCT) or edge crush strength (ECT) combined with “factors of safety� are utilized to ensure sufficient lifetime. Lifetime measurements are subject to large variability, and BCT alone is not sufficient to predict lifetime in all situations exacerbating package design. Creep testing, while important is time consuming, so it is of interest to determine if it is possible to extrapolate lifetime from both the variability and the shape of load-deformation curves of BCT. To investigate this, the lifetime measurements of two “identical� boxes in terms of BCT were determined under conditions of 25% BCT constant load in a cyclic-humidity environment. The two-box types consisted of C-flute single-wall corrugated board each composed from different paperboards, but both having a BCT=3.25 kN. Based on previous literature, a semi-empirical equation relating load to lifetime was utilized to predict variability in lifetime from variability in BCT. In addition, the McKee equation was utilized in a secondary role to predict lifetime from ECT and bending stiffness measurements. Finally, the load versus deformation curves from the BCT tests were studied to determine differences in the behaviour of the two boxes. The results of this study, suggest the variability in BCT measurements along with the semi-empirical equation can be utilized to estimate the magnification of variability in lifetime. In addition, lifetime was better predicted from combined board properties, while the measured BCT values were impacted by differences in ductility in the two boxes.

    5. "Discussion of Performance and Role of Measured Properties"
  56. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM6B: Optimizing Papermachine Wetends

    Session Chair: , Tom Rodencal & Associates
    1. "Valmet's Intelligent Refining to Contribute Minimized Operating Costs, Optimum Quality and Increased Stability — Solutions and Results"
      Speaker: , Valmet

      The refining stage in stock-preparation plays an important role in developing the properties of stock for paper and board production. The key target of Valmet’s solution development is how to save operating costs and increase profit while keeping the end product quality at target level for the customers. There are three cornerstones which Valmet builds on to achieve these targets: refining, OptiFiner Pro, itself e.g. how do fibers are treated and at which amount of refining energy. The second cornerstone is automation and how stock properties can be measured automatically without human interference and how to utilize models to predict the quality of the stock after the machine chest. The third cornerstone is Industrial internet applications, which provides possibility to an online dialogue with data. The dialogue with online data further improves the ability to have stability in the process, and remarkably shortens the reaction times to solve problems. There is also possibility to have a connection to Valmet's Performance Center, with a whole team of experts to speed-up troubleshooting. Many commercial installations show that Valmet’s refining solutions improves end product properties and increases energy efficiency. This paper will present a more detailed description of the refining solutions, automation platforms and Industrial Internet applications. It will also present mill experiences and results under production conditions.

    2. "Laser Level Measurement in Pulp and Paper Applications"
      Speaker: , ABB
      Author: , ABB

      Laser level measurement is attracting more and more attention in the pulp and paper industry. It provides for easy and reliable non-contact measurement. Laser beams move through space with very little divergence, meaning they remain tightly focused even at long distances. Since the laser beam doesn’t interact with the surrounding environment, there is no need to cancel false echoes: only the liquid or solid surface is detected. Commissioning is thus simpler. Also, changes in the environment do not require changes in sensor parameters. For instance, material accumulation on the side of a vessel will change over time, requiring a remapping of false echoes. The same would happen if the sensor is moved. This will never be required with laser level measurement. Therefore it leads to more reliability and more up time during use. Applications such as pulper automation, impregnation tower level measurement, wood chip silo or tank measurement, among others, will be reviewed to see how they benefit from this technology.

    3. "Dilution Headbox - Unique Features to Optimize the Web Cross-Direction Basis Weight Profile and Edge Flows"
      Author: , Bellmer Vaahto Paper Machinery Oy
      Speaker: , BELLMER USA Corp

      Bellmer TurboJetter headbox represents the state-of-the art technology in modern paper and board making. The hydraulic headbox has unique features to control paper web cross-direction profile and edge flows. The headbox body itself can be adjusted to control fiber orientation. The streakiness of the web can be eliminated by 2-element-distributor design. The machine direction pulsation dampening can be controlled either by a separate attenuator tank or in-built air cushion. Bellmer has supplied more than 180 headboxes to global markets including some recent references in North America. Bellmer is a German family own company with 176 years of experience in manufacturing high technology machinery for the Pulp and Paper Industry worldwide. The BELLMER group has recently established BELLMER USA in the United States territory with a corporate office in Atlanta focusing on enhancing our presence with competitive solutions to our customers in North America.

    4. "Development Steps of Shoe and Blade Gap Forming in Containerboard Making"
      Speaker: , Valmet

      The main idea of this presentation is to discuss about shoe and the blade gap forming technology's latest news. This technology has been available for years. But now we have gained again more experience about this almost 20 years young forming process and it is time to update status. This change of paper and board making environment is deflecting very nicely in further development of shoe and blade forming. Traditionally paper and board have been more far away from each other, but new challenges have created the need for different approach. Basis weight ranges of lines are expanding and it is required totally different level of flexibility compared conventional paper or board machine wet end is used to. Shoe and blade forming has got a great boost and possibility to show the potential along this development. Together with modern headbox technology it has been tested in pilot environment that shoe and blade forming is very flexible. The results are still to come. It is lucky that we do have still in this business pioneers who are seeing this change as a possibility. The same way as Valmet sees. The presentation material of this customer's results during the first year of commercial operation is clearly showing already that it was worth of selecting new way to operate.

  57. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PA6: Bio-based Dry Strength

    Session Chair: , Buckman International
    1. "Application of Cellulosic Based Wood Additives for Recycled Paper Applications – A Pilot Paper Machine Study"
      Speaker: , SUNY-ESF
      Author: , SUNY-ESF

      Rising production costs, price pressure and environmental regulations in the paper sector, require that new ways need to be found for a sustainable production. Increasing the use of additives to reduce cost of materials and energy required for manufacturing is an ongoing effort among papermakers. Selecting the proper additive for each type of paper is the key in achieving this goal. Given that the market for the application of recycled fibers is expected to grow in North America, this study focused on selecting the optimal cellulosic based wood additive to produce a print and liner product. The proposed paper will give a first insight into the use of a cellulosic based wood additives to produce a print and liner product based on 100% recycled fibers as raw material. Initial tests were performed at the Paper and Bioprocess Engineering Department (PBE) at the State University of New York (SUNY-ESF). The results were used to design a 12� pilot paper machine run at the PBE pilot plant. This study compared four varieties of cellulosic based additives at an 2% to 10% addition. The finished print and liner product were analyzed, in regard to structural, optical, and strength properties. Based on first results, it can be suggested, that cellulosic based wood additive represents a promising approach in improving the physical properties of paper and liner products based on 100% recycled fiber content. Please Note: This study is currently performed, and no final paper property values can be reported in the abstract at time of submission.

    2. "Performance of Engineered Polysaccharides in Paper Applications"
      Speaker: , DuPont
      Author: , DuPont Industrial Biosciences

      DuPont Industrial Biosciences has developed an enzymatic process to produce high purity polysaccharides with controlled molecular weight and structure. These materials offer possibilities for high purity tailorable materials for specific markets and applications. These polysaccharides can also be modified through a range of processes to transform them to have a range of chemical functionalities and physical morphologies. In wet-end paper applications we have demonstrated significant strength improvements with a variety of pulps in a range of end-use applications. The addition of these materials also show compatibility with existing formulation additives and demonstrate improvements in machine operability.

    3. "Modified Starch Provides a Strong Solution for Quality Optimization in Tissue and Towel Grades"
      Speaker: , Ingredion

      Tissue and towel producers must balance strength development with conflicting characteristics like softness and absorbency. Refining is commonly used to develop dry strength, but this can change the physical properties of the furnish, having a detrimental impact on bulk. Strength requirements also limit the furnish blend that producers can employ, limiting the amount of hardwoods, which benefit bulk and other sheet properties. Modified starch has shown to be the most effective additive for improving dry strength properties in tissue and towel grades, providing tensile increases in the range of 20-30%. It can function in challenging wet end environments and it can be tailored work in conjunction with other functional additives while maintaining chemistry balance. The strength levels achieved provide the best opportunity to optimize machine operating parameters and furnish to realize a net improvement in quality. It has been demonstrated that strength generation from starch has allowed T&T producers to reduce or eliminate refining. This allows them to develop the strength required to meet product specifications without changing the physical properties of the furnish. Maintaining the natural properties of a furnish can have a direct benefit on softness by maximizing bulk, surface texture, and sheet flexibility. The drainage benefit realized from a reduction in refining can lead to improvements in sheet forming, especially on advanced machines where producers can create more texture, or bulk when running at higher solids off the former. Dry strength contribution from modified starch can also provide the opportunity to optimize the furnish mix, allowing for increased hardwood content without compromising sheet integrity. This is yet another avenue to improve sheet characteristics while balancing strength requirements. We will demonstrate these claims with data developed from machine trials and applications as well as lab studies.

    4. "Packaging Grade Paper from Rice Straw Pulp Using Bio-Polymers"
      Author: , Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
      Author: , Avantha Centre for Industrial Research & Development
      Speaker: Yuvraj Singh Negi, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

      Paper industry has an imperative position in advocating the economic escalation of any nation. To convene the increasing demand of paper, environmental regulations and customer’s contentment, Indian paper industry is confronting with many technical, economical and ecological global challenges. Paper mills are shifting from forest based raw materials towards agro wastes for ecological and economic sustenance. Utilization of rice straw for packaging grade paper is a good option but its strength is the major issue. Packaging grade paper has a significant niche in the commodities of routine requirement and its complete biodegradable nature and sustainable economic production will be beneficial for the environment as well as the industry. Different polymers like polyethyleneimines, polyamides, polyamines, urea formaldehyde, polyethylene oxide etc. used as strength additives are known to cause hazardous effects on health and environment. In the present study, two biopolymers, chitosan (as wet-end additive) and starch (as surface sizing agent) being biodegradable and non-hazardous, have been used to improve the strength and surface properties of packaging grade paper. Use of chitosan at all doses from 0.5 to 10 kg/t improved the strength and surface properties of paper. The breaking length, tear index and burst index of the paper with 10 kg/t chitosan as wet-end additive showed 18%, 15%, and 20% improvement, respectively in comparison to without its addition. The Cobb60 was also reduced by 45% showing better resistance to water in comparison to rice straw paper alone. The use of 10 kg/t chitosan at wet-end reduced the colour and total dissolved solid by 50% of wet-end papermaking system. The surface sizing with oxidized starch further improved the surface and strength properties of paper. The effects of chitosan at wet-end and oxidized starch at surface sizing on the paper surface were investigated using FTIR and SEM.

  58. PIMA Management (M)

    M8: State of the Industry

    1. "Paper Packaging Outlook"
      Speaker: , Fastmarkets RISI
    2. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Goldman Sachs
    3. "Key Issues Facing the Global Pulp and Paper Industry"
      Speaker: , Fisher
  59. Coating &amp; Graphic Arts (CGA)

    CGA6: Advanced Coating Topics

    Session Chair: , PaperCote LLC
    1. "Rheological Characteristics of Platy Kaolin"
      Speaker: , Paper Lyons LLC/Imerys

      Platy kaolin can provide significant value in the coating of paper and paperboard. It can be used in multiple applications, and provide benefits such as TiO2 extension, smoothness improvement, improved print gloss or ink set rates, calendering intensity reduction, and improved barrier properties. It is not a pigment that can be simply substituted for traditional hydrous kaolin without some adjustment to the coating formulation. These adjustments can be as simple as reducing solids, but may require binder changes as well. The coater set up may need to be adjusted because of the unique rheological behaviors these pigments exhibit. The rheological characteristics of platy kaolin are explored here. This includes high shear and low shear viscosity, oscillatory measure of viscoelasticity and water retention measurements. An extensive analysis reveals some unique behaviors that need to be understood when utilizing these materials. An indirect measure of particle shape and size synergy is also demonstrated.

    2. "Comparison of the Coating Strength of Four Binder Chemistries Used in Paperboard Coatings"
      Speaker: , Trinseo LLC
      Author: , Trinseo LLC

      This paper discusses a study comparing the coating strength of different latex binder types that are used in paper and paperboard coatings. Typical binders used in paperboard are styrene-butadiene (SB), styrene-acrylate (SA), vinyl acrylic (VA) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). Latex binders are used in the coatings to provide adhesion to the basesheet and cohesion between the pigments. Additionally for paperboard, they facilitate acceptable glueability, improve printing press performance and enhance printability. The latex binder can also improve coater runnability, such as the ability to increase the coating solids while providing the appropriate rheology and shear stability on high machine speeds. The binder must also provide the appropriate dry and wet strength as this is important for the printing, finishing and converting of the paperboard as well as for final carton use. In today’s environment, where manufacturing efficiency is measured by the balance of cost and efficiency, a strong coating is required to withstand the stresses of high speed printing equipment and at the same time give sufficient gluability with less efficient adhesives often chosen due to lower cost. In this study, each binder type was evaluated at 5 different levels in two pigment systems, one containing 20 parts of calcined clay and the other containing 70 parts of calcined clay. Overall results indicate that the SB and SA binders are similar in efficiency when targeting 100% fiber tear in hot melt glue testing. Using a series of predictive models that were generated with the data from this study, we saw that the SB binder has advantages in better dry and wet pick strength and lower Vandercook slope whereas the SA binder has faster wet glue setting. The PVAc binder requires about 9% more binder to achieve similar hot melt glue strength and at the higher binder levels, has lower IGT dry pick and ink density than the SB binder but similar passes to fail, slope and wet strength. In all three cases, the least efficient is the VA binder, but had faster wet glue setting, and at high calcined clay levels, the VA could not achieve 100% fiber tear for hot melt glue within the limits of the predictive models. At the lower calcined clay levels, the VA binder required about 19% more binder to achieve the target hot melt glue strength, had similar passes to fail, slope and brightness, but lower in wet strength, IGT dry pick and ink density compared to the SB binder. We showed that increasing binder level improved wet and hot melt glue strength, IGT dry pick, passes to fail, and reduces Vandercook slope. Reducing binder level increased coating brightness, regardless of the type of binder. Very high binder levels caused increased water repellency, due to the coating structure being more closed, which resulted in interference in ink laydown.

    3. "Discrete Element Method to Model Tension and Bending for Single Layer 3-Dimension Systems"
      Speaker: , Omya International

      A Discrete Element Method (DEM) based model has been expanded to simulate in-line tension and bending of single coating layers in three dimensions. The model can predict the modulus, maximum stress, and strain-at-failure for the coating layer when undergoing such deformations. The model makes these predictions for a variety of particle size distributions and for different binder packages. Inputs to the model include mechanical data for the pure binder systems and the coordinates for particle packings. The results are compared to experimental data and to two-dimensional simulations.

    4. "Progress in Barrier Coating Technology for Paper-based Food Packaging"
      Speaker: , North Carolina State University
  60. NETInc (N)

    N6: Nano & Micro Technologies

    Session Chair: , USDA-ARS
    1. "Preparation of Aramid Fibrillated Nanofiber/ Styrene-butadiene Latex Composites and Its Mechanical Properties"
      Speaker: , South China University of Technology
      Author: , South China University of Technology
      Author: Guilong Xu, South China University of Technology
      Author: Jin Long, South China University of Technology
      Author: , South China University of Technology

      Nanofiber has been paid much attention recently for using as reinforcing agents in polymer composite materials. This research paper studied the mechanical properties of aramid fibrillated nanofiber/styrene-butadiene latex (AFN/SBL) composites. Aramid fibrillated nanofiber (AFN) was prepared by a refining process. The diameter of AFN can be decreased to dozens of nanometers. Styrene-butadiene latex (SBL), an essential component of highly performance products for construction industry, nonwoven products and adhesives, was selected as the matrix which is mixed with AFN. The weight content of AFN is less than or equal to 8% (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the structure of AFN, the fiber dispersion and fracture surface of AFN/SBL composites. The elastic modulus and tensile strength of composites were improved apparently. With the increase of fiber percentage from 2 wt% to 8 wt%, the elastic modulus from 0.53 MPa improved to 19.66 MPa, and the tensile strength from 2.41 MPa improved to 4.23 MPa.

    2. "Cotton as a Nanoengineering Tool to Produce Antibacterial Nonwovens"
      Speaker: , USDA-ARS
      Author: , USDA-ARS
      Author: Brian Condon, USDA-ARS
      Speaker: Michael Reynolds, USDA-ARS

      Silver nanoparticles have emerged as a new class of powerful, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents due to their high surface area to volume ratio and nanomechanical attack. However, the antibacterial performance of silver nanoparticles encased within cotton fiber has not been known because of great challenges to uniformly disperse nanoparticles into the highly crystalline fiber. In this study, we demonstrated that cotton can act as a nanoengineering tool to in-situ produce uniformly sized silver nanoparticles throughout the entire volume of the fiber and evaluated their unique antibacterial performance against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for nonwoven applications.

    3. "TBA"
  61. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM6A: Managing Papermachine Conversions

    Session Chair: , Domtar
    1. "TBA"
    2. "Preserving Paper Machine Efficiency When Moving Towards New Paper Grades"
      Speaker: , FPInnovations
      Author: , FPInnovations

      As the market for paper and paperboard grades become more competitive, many mills are looking into market diversification and production of new grades with growth potential, while for many others cost reduction and lightweighting remains the key priority. Most of the mills are restricted to use their actual paper machine with minimal capital investment on equipment and rebuilds, thus paper machine efficiency becomes more critical. Reducing web breaks on paper machine and improving quality remain key priorities for these mills. A lot of work has been done on improving paper machine efficiency, but most of the research work focused on the defects and average paper strength properties. FPInnovations has been focusing on characterizing process variability and web uniformity and developed in-depth knowledge and unique diagnostic tools that have been used over the years to address paper machine efficiency and end-users runnability issues. This paper will first focus on describing what affects PM efficiency and product quality variability when mills move towards lighter grades or new grades. Troubleshooting techniques and tools developed to understand the fundamental mechanisms behind PM efficiency issues will be discussed. Few field studies will be also presented to demonstrate how efficient troubleshooting on paper machine can provide optimal solutions for improving paper machine efficiency.

    3. "Making Paper with End-Use in Mind"
      Speaker: , Fort Dearborn Company
      Author: , ND Paper Company
      Author: Robert (Bob) Hickey, Red Gold Inc

      Making Paper with End Use in Mind PaperCon 2019 Conference By Dilip Parikh, Sr. Director of Manufacturing Services, Fort Dearborn Company David Rosenthal, Director, Specialty Products, ND Paper Company Bob Hickey, Packaging Superintendent, Red Gold Abstract: In today’s Paper Market quite a few paper companies have shut down mills or paper machines making certain grades of papers. Specialty paper grades are in good demand as packaging market is thriving and environmental concerns with plastics increase. Papers require a long life span as printing or converting can occur months in advance of application process. Papers are susceptible to environmental changes so balancing the sheet from converting perspective through application perspective is critical. So making a specialty paper requires technical expertise, tight process controls, and supply chain management from paper mills through end-use customer facilities. This paper hopes to provide a process for covering these technical challenges.

    4. "No Risk, No Future. Using Trials with Machine Clothing are Essential to the Industry"
      Speaker: , Feltest Equipment BV

      Understandable, but unfortunately, trials with Paper Machine Clothing are not very popular amongst papermakers. We all know the stakes are high, competition is hard and machine downtime is expensive. Unfortunately, the costs of NOT running trials are infinitely higher because then the future of the whole Industry is at stake. This paper creates awareness for the deadly consequences of our current risk-avoiding behavior. Trends like single-sourcing of Machine Clothing and the complete outsourcing of Machine Clothing optimization have led to locked-in situations between supplier and customer. Many papermaker can no longer easily switch to another Machine Clothing supplier when an innovative new technology becomes available. Even worse, due to today’s extreme risk-avoidance at the mills also the development of successful new Machine Clothing technology is slowed down. On the long term this process of slow product development and even slower market acceptance will give competitive materials a better chance on beating Pulp & Paper products. This paper presents strong and hands-on arguments and tips that papermakers can use to withstand the pressure of the “bookkeepers� and to give a boost to their own machine and to innovation in the Paper Industry as a whole.

  62. Process Control (PC)

    PC6: CIG Meetings

    1. "The Next Level of Web Inspection: A Specialty Mill Upgrade"
      Speaker: joseph poltorak, Schenk Vision LLC
    2. "Real-Time Paper and Paperboard Quality Analysis and Classification Based on Paper Formation or Surface Formation in Web Inspection System"
      Speaker: Tommi Huotilainen, ABB
    3. "New Machine Vision Applications for Paper Industry"
      Speaker: Aki Torvinen, Valmet
    4. "Surface Printability Measurement for Paper and Board"
      Speaker: Toni Kuparinen, Printworks
  63. Break

  64. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PA7: Dry Strength Additives

    Session Chair: , Solenis
    1. "New Lignin Management Program Improves Strength and Performance in Virgin Containerboard"
      Speaker: , Solenis
      Author: , Solenis

      It is well known that retention, drainage and strength programs struggle to perform (if at all) in virgin containerboard mills. Solenis has undertaken in-depth studies in this area for more than seven years investigating the issue from all directions. A key finding in this work is that soluble lignin is detrimental to chemical efficiency. We have repeatedly documented a strong correlation between decreased chemical efficiency and high soluble lignin. This correlation holds true regardless of the furnish, as both recycled systems and virgin systems have been studied. The primary area of concern is virgin containerboard as these mills tend to have the highest lignin levels. Some highly closed recycled mills can also build elevated lignin levels that can negatively affect chemical efficiency. Lignin management has become a major area of focus for us and several approaches have been established. Lignin resilient polymers have been developed and are currently in use with good results. This approach has been enhanced with our multicomponent Fusion Strength and Performance technology. The central concept of this multicomponent system is soluble lignin reduction which results in improved performance of subsequent chemistry. A more recent development has employed a combined enzymatic and polymeric approach to improve performance even further. This new lignin activation technology has been tested successfully in a very challenging 100% virgin Kraft system. Several dry strength technologies have been evaluated in this system in the past with poor results. When this new enzymatic approach was integrated with our polymer program the soluble lignin was reduced by up to 75%, making the chemistry so reactive that it more than doubled the headbox freeness! Further evaluations at this mill have documented greater than 20% strength improvement with significant speed increase.

    2. "Recycled Furnish Strength Enhancement via Enzyme Application to Refiner"
      Speaker: , WestRock
      Author: , Buckman International
      Author: Peter Hart, WestRock

      For years the papermaker has used mechanical refining to give fiber the qualities desired for the grade being produced. In many cases the refining operation is a balance between positive and negative qualities. Another consideration these days is the cost of power. When refining alone can’t meet the strength specifications, it is common to use more expensive, higher strength pulp. In addition, various strength chemicals may be required. All of these avenues result in increased cost of production. In the last few years, the use of enzymes to give the papermaker the desired fiber qualities has increased. The proper choice of enzyme can give targeted modification to the fiber. This allows the quality targets to be met with an overall reduction in cost of production. A fiber modifying enzymatic product supplied by Buckman was applied on a commercial recycle board machine in an effort to enhance strength properties of the final product without negatively impacting freeness and drainage on the wet end of the papermachine. Applied refining energy was not changed during the month-long trial. Results from a lightweight sheet of 23# were as follows: significant reduction in starch application with a small increase is Concora crush strength, slightly increased machine speed and slightly reduced basis weight while maintaining the remaining properties at relatively constant levels. Mill data were used to validate the results.

    3. "Mapping Analysis of Paper Surface for Developing High Performance Paper Strength Agent"
      Speaker: , Arakawa Chemical Industries, Inc
      Author: , Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd
      Author: Kensuke Yutanu, Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd
      Author: Norihito Higashitani, Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd
      Author: , Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd
      Author: , Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd

      With recent changes of paper making conditions such as increasing of used paper’s recycling rate and restriction of fresh water consumption, higher performance paper chemicals are required. In this presentation, we will explain our approach to support the environmental adaptive system by amphoteric Polyacrylamide (aPAM) based dry strength agents. It is well known that aPAM aqueous solution forms Polyion complex (PIC), which is caused by electrostatic interaction between positive and negative charged moieties under certain condition. It is said that prominent effect of dry-strength can be provided by in-situ formation of PIC, followed by deposition of PIC on the surface of pulp fiber. Using an advanced Scanning Probe Microscope method, clear image of PIC which retained on the pulp fiber in aqueous solution could be achieved. The relationship between PIC size and paper dry-strength was also discussed for corresponding hand-sheet. In general, the increase of electric conductivity prevents PIC formation and thus decreases PIC size. Therefore, we have designed an advanced paper strength agent, which can make larger size of PIC under high conductivity. This new agent achieved higher dry-strength than conventional one.

  65. International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC)

    IPPC7-PF5: Fundamentals of Water Removal

    Session Chair: , Monash University
    1. "The Effect of Felt-Web Structure Interaction on Press Dryness Variability"
      Speaker: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden
      Author: , RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden

      During pressing, batt fibres in the press felt exert a localized pressure on the wet web, the extent of which depends on the structure and geometric properties of the felt’s batt fibers and base weave but also on the structure of the wet web itself. This results in an important interaction between felt and paper web which affects press dryness, it’s variability and subsequent drying efficiency. In this work, we elucidate the interaction between felt and web structure and its effect on dryness variability through a series of laboratory trials. Oriented paper sheets, 80 gsm are pressed with two different orientations, one with the felt aligned in the machine direction (MD) or with felt aligned in the cross direction (CD) in order to establish different web-felt contact interactions. The wet webs are then imaged at high speed using a Near Infrared (NIR) and Infrared (IR) camera simultaneously which allows moisture in the web to be visualized during drying. The average press dryness was shown to be independent of felt orientation. However, when the press felt was oriented in the CD, significant variability in press dryness was observed at well-defined wavelengths and the drying time increased.

    2. "Unique Compression Behavior of Foam-Formed Sheets in Wet Pressing and Calendering"
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: Ilkka Nurminen, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Speaker: Jukka Ketoja, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd

      Foam forming technology provides a resource efficient way to produce novel lightweight fiber materials. In the case paper and board products, it is important to understand how compressive operations such as wet pressing and calendering affect bulk achieved at the forming section. In wet pressing, this question is closely linked to dewatering characteristics of different furnishes. We have compared dynamic compression behavior of foam and water formed sheets, and carefully analysed changes in the volume fractions of fibers, water and air for different furnishes. The main qualitative difference between the two forming methods is the strong thickness recovery of the foam-formed sheet after the first wet pressing pulse. Moreover, significantly higher solids content is achieved with foam forming enabling new wet pressing strategies. However, there are important differences among the studied furnishes depending mainly on the type and content of fines in the furnish. Curiously, the advantage of foam-formed sheets coming from the improved compression recovery holds not only in wet pressing but also for calendering. This suggests that the unique recovery properties obtained with foam forming are related mainly to the fiber network structure rather than the lower water surface tension or improved dewatering. We discuss these questions in the light of earlier knowledge on inelastic deformation behavior of fibre networks. The work shows the most potential furnishes for high bulk and discusses how the studied process operations can be done effectively in the case of foam forming.

    3. "Modelling of a Viscoelastic Compression Model for the Simulation of Mechanical Dewatering Processes"
      Author: , Voith Paper
      Author: , Voith Paper
      Author: Siefried Graser, Voith Paper
      Speaker: Timo Frick, Voith Paper

      During the papermaking process, a pulp web is continuously dewatered and dried. Mechanical dewatering in the press section significantly defines the properties and the quality of the paper. Furthermore an improved mechanical drainage significantly reduces thermal energy consumption in the following dryer section. This increases the efficiency of the entire papermaking process. However, the physical processes inside the press nip are still poorly understood and can be only measured with huge efforts. Modeling and simulation of the mechanical dewatering offers insights into the process which are hardly achievable by measurements and experiments. Thus the simulation can be used to improve and redesign the process and the components involved. The 1-D modeling approach for mechanical dewatering is based on effective parameters to ensure fast and efficient calculations. By a modular concept, heterogeneous layers with individual flow and material transport equations can be combined to larger units, such as felt and paper layers, which are provided by our in-house developed simulation library. The most important physical models included in each layer are a two-phase flow model interacting with a structural-mechanical compression model. The later one will be the focus topic of this presentation. Laboratory tests have shown that the dewatering behavior of paper and felt significantly depends on the compression behavior of the paper web. For our simulation approach, we use several macroscopic compression models which follow different spring-damper approaches. Due to high strain rates and the high proportion of irreversible deformation it contains nonlinearities and modifications to conventional viscoelastic models for solid materials. For development and calibration of the compression model, data sets from laboratory tests with fully saturated paper webs were used. Optimization algorithms were applied to obtain the effective parameters of the compression models by fitting the models to the measured data.

    4. "Fundamental Understanding of Bound Water Removal in Paper Drying Process"
      Speaker: , WPI
      Author: , WPI
      Author: Jamal Yagoobi, WPI

      In the fabrication of paper, a slurry with cellulose fibers and other matter is pressed and dried, which requires a significant expense in energy. In the structure of paper, there are two different types of water: free water and bound water. Free water can be removed relatively efficiently, but removing bound water, which consists of both fluid regions dominated by capillarity, along with water which is inside the fibers, consumes a large portion of energy during the process. This paper strives to understand the different possible physical mechanisms in fiber scale for bound water removal in a paper drying process. Therefore, as a canonical model a thin liquid film upon a porous substrate, which represents the cellulose fibers, is considered. The film is assumed to be incompressible, viscous, and subject to evaporation, thermocapillarity, surface tension, and vapor recoil. By using two phase flow models such as volume of fluid (VOF), the effect of above mentioned parameters on evaporation (drying) behavior of the thin film, as the bound water, will be investigated. In addition, the results of the numerical simulations will be compared to the power law relationships which are obtained experimentally and are verified by analytical models. Therefore, using the results of this research and by controlling the studied above mentioned parameters on the evaporation of the thin liquid film, the related industries will be able to control the drying of bound water in the final stages of drying processes in order to increase the efficiency of paper-making.

  66. PIMA Management (M)

    M9: Mill Manager's Roundtable

    1. "TBA"
      Speaker: , Domtar
    2. "TBA"
    3. "TBA"
  67. NETInc (N)

    N7: Process Advances 2

    Session Chair: , Jefferson University
    1. "Oxygen Bleaching - Replacement of Sodium Hydroxide by Calcium Hydroxide"
      Speaker: , SUNY-ESF

      The proposed paper will give an overview of the sustainable replacement of sodium hydroxide with calcium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage of Kraft pulping for yellow pine and eucalyptus pulps. A Quantum reactor was used for this study, which included a single system using calcium and sodium hydroxide and a hybrid system with sodium hydroxide, EDTA, CO2, sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. Promising results were achieved by using sodium bicarbonate in combination with calcium hydroxide. Acid washing also had positive impact on bleaching efficiency. Dolomitic lime led to better bleaching results compared to regular calcium hydroxide. The use of carbon dioxide resulted in a good bleachability at higher calcium hydroxide concentration.

    2. "UnWasted Possibilities: An Exploration in Product Design Using Felt Offcuts"
      Speaker: , Rochester Institute of Technology

      The UnWasted Possibilities project was a full-semester graduate-level design course that grew from a hat manufacturer's recognition that there was potential value in their nonwoven offcuts. UnWasted offered first semester Industrial Design (ID) graduate students the opportunity to design new products from post-industrial/pre-consumer wool felt waste. The American-based hat manufacturer provided fifty pounds of felted merino wool offcuts to the class to facilitate the investigation of design possibilities through materials explorations, product ideation & iteration, prototyping, and final product development. Students in the course did not have previous textile knowledge and many had limited design experience. This studio course began by introducing the graduate ID students to basic textile knowledge, including the global environmental impact of the textile industry. As stated in its 2015 report, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that textile waste occupied nearly 6% of all landfill space, with approximately 12.8 million tons of textile waste added annually in the US alone (U.S. EPA, 2015). While post-industrial textile waste plays a considerably smaller role in these figures in comparison to post-consumer textile waste, it still offers significant areas for design opportunities. As textile scraps are non-hazardous solid waste, they frequently go straight to landfills as they are of lower concern than other hazardous materials (Tomovka et al., 2017). This knowledge combined with central design principles taught in graduate ID coursework allowed for a perfectly matched design opportunity for students. To further understand both wool fiber and felt properties, students explored needle felting using various types of wool and felting techniques. Students also researched wet felting, wool felt hat manufacturing processes, and specific finishing techniques used by the project's industry partner. After the research stage, students moved onto materials exploration, including both mechanical and chemical treatments of the felt. Students individually documented all learnings, techniques, and methods and presented their findings to their classmates in weekly download sessions. Once students gained a deeper understanding of the possibilities of fiber and fabric manipulation, they began the ideation & iteration phase of the design process. There were no restraints on product category. Design concepts were wide-ranging, from lighting to furniture to accessories. Each student developed sketches and technique samples for selected concepts and refined their ideas through in-class critiques. Full-scale mockups determined finer details. Execution of final prototypes took three weeks and were presented at the end-of-semester final critique. The UnWasted Possibilities project concluded with the creation of process books to share with the industry partner, including suggestions for additional areas of future exploration. References Tomovska, E., Jordeva, S., Trajković, D., & Zafirova, K. (2017). Attitudes towards managing post-industrial apparel cuttings waste. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 108:2 172-177. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2015). Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures 2013. Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery. Accessed November 2018. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015- 09/documents/2013_advncng_smm_rpt.pdf

    3. "Why Precision Alignment is Critical to the Success of Nonwoven Manufacturers"
      Speaker: , OASIS Alignment Services

      Like most web-fed processes, nonwoven lines are susceptible to quality and production issues when components are not aligned. From the wet end to the dry end, precision alignment is a critical factor in producing high-quality product and avoiding scrap and downtime. In this presentation, Myron Smith, Director of Training & Development at OASIS Alignment Services, will provide an overview of how alignment can affect each section of a nonwoven manufacturing line. Common process and production issues related to alignment will be discussed along with the alignment techniques and technologies that can help to eliminate costly problems.

  68. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM7: Optimizing Papermachine Energy Consumption

    Session Chair: , Wisconsin Focus on Energy
    1. "Thermocompressor Application in Paper Drying"
      Speaker: , Kadant Johnson Systems

      Thermocompressors are often misunderstood, overlooked, and misapplied in the pulp and paper industry. As numerous paper machines are being modernized and converted from producing graphic papers to containerboard, the proper application of thermocompressors is more important than ever. The change in machine operating conditions can lead to thermocompressors that no longer match the syphon design resulting in higher differential pressures than required or consuming more motive steam than required. This is also a common problem for dryer syphons that have been converted from rotary to stationary without re-sizing the thermocompressor. This paper explores the latest developments with high-efficiency thermocompressor design as they are applied to the paper industry.

    2. "Papermachine Air Systems"
      Speaker: , Valmet

      Hood air balance is critical to maintaining efficient energy consumption of the paper machine's dryer section. As a result, drying performance and machine productivity also benefit by running at optimum conditions. This paper will review the strategy and means available for optimum operation. A case study is also presented to illustrate the principles presented.

    3. "Energy Reduction by Design, Incorporating Energy Review Expertise during Process Design"
      Speaker: , Wisconsin Focus on Energy
      Speaker: , Wisconsin Focus on Energy

      Energy Reduction by Design: This presentation highlights the value of an energy reduction evaluation as part of major project design. Major project teams consist of the owner or owner’s representative, lead construction management, a lead vendor, and the design engineer. Significant energy improvements to the preliminary design, have been identified through a multi-faceted energy team, working as an extension of the project team. Integration of Best Practices, review of a broader energy interaction, identification of alternative technologies or design, and applicability of available energy incentives are all part of the deliverables of the energy resource team. The team summarizes the discoveries, incentives, and an overall energy reduction metric. This information can be used as a summary for senior management reporting, and for environmental sustainability tracking. The presentation would seek to present these concepts, for integration into major project design, procurement, and commissioning. It supports the adage; “Do it right the first time�. But seeks to execute the strategy, while minimizing the burden on the project team, engaging subject matter expertise, and keeping the improvement cost within the original project budgetary estimates.

  69. Coating &amp; Graphic Arts (CGA)

    CGA7: Advances in Coating Operations

    Session Chair: , Advanced Dynamics Corp
    1. "Pigment Coating of Porous Foam Formed Structures"
      Speaker: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: Christiane Laine, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: Eija Kenttä, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd

      The main advantages of the foam forming technology are possibilities to produce highly uniform structures (good formation), and to reduce the raw material consumption. Earlier experimental work has shown that compared to the conventional water formed products, the bulky foam formed base papers have more surface voids. Consequently, coating with traditional application methods is more challenging, and non-contact coating methods should be considered. Our aim was to improve the paper coating holdout of foam formed webs either by pre-calendering or by surface foam coating with starch. Pre-treatments were carried out in laboratory scale before pigment coating in pilot scale by using either a Metered Size Press (MSP) with a high pressure pulse or a non-contact curtain coating applicator. The final performance of pigment coated products was studied with traditional paper properties, coating holdout with burn-out test and coating penetration with cross section images. Foam formed samples had lower coating holdout than water formed ones. Non-contact curtain coating led to higher coating holdout than the application with a high pressure pulse (MSP). Based on the tomography studies both pre-calendering and starch sizing with foam coating reduced the pore volume of structures and therefore improved the coating holdout. Pre-calendering improved the coating holdout and smoothness better than sizing but simultaneously the bulk was reduced. Starch foam coating closed the surface effectively but the surface was not uniform. Some deep surface pores could not be closed by surface treatments, and more experiments are needed to avoid them in the wire section. Starch amount and its more uniform application or faster consolidation of coating colour need to be studied further in order to reduce the levelling in curtain coating process. Curtain coating is a potential method for porous foam formed structures but coating formulations should be further developed to obtain optimal printing performance.

    2. "Polyolefin Dispersions for Water Barrier on Paper and Paperboard"
      Speaker: , The Dow Chemical Company
      Author: , The Dow Chemical Company
      Author: Brian Einsla, The Dow Chemical Company

      A common approach for providing water barrier on paper or paperboard involves laminating or extruding thick polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) films. There is commercial interest in moving away from these traditional barrier solutions in favor of a thinner, more easily applied, and more environmentally friendly coating option. One alternative is to deliver the same polyolefin chemistry to paper and paper board surfaces, but as a waterborne coating. This approach keeps the same liquid barrier performance of thick PE and PP films, but allows for reduced coat weight demands, improved repulp/recyclability, novel formulation options, inline application during paper manufacturing, and improved environmental impact. In this presentation waterborne polyolefin dispersions or PODs are discussed, including examples of liquid barrier performance, heat seal, and repulpability/recyclability for hot and cold beverage cup applications. An assessment of the technology for paper and paper board applications will be discussed in addition to performance metrics of next generation offerings.

    3. "Automated Roll Storage System at a Scandinavian Coated Board Mill"
      Speaker: , Pesmel Oy

      A Scandinavian mill recently installed a TransRoll automated high-bay roll storage system, which can be successfully done at existing mills with limited ceiling heights. As part of converting the mill from fine papers to folding boxboard and linerboard grades on 2 machines a new extrusion coating line was added. It required an intermediate roll storage (IRS) between the paperboard production lines and the extrusion coating line. The only practical area for this IRS was the old empty 20 ft high sheeting hall next to the new extruder line. The available footprint was also too limited to allow the use of traditional clamp trucks or automatically guided vehicles (AGVs). Pesmel’s TransRoll was the solution. The standard storage rack was scaled to fit the available height meaning that only two levels of roll channels with a maximum diameter of 72” could be accommodated. It also required asymmetric channel lengths (80’ and 55’) with an aisle between them for one stacker crane to make full use of the available footprint. In other words, the traditional stacks of rolls were tilted for horizontal channels to fill the available shallow space optimally with rolls from wall to wall and floor to ceiling. The storage volume was doubled compared with that of an AGV solution. The TransRoll concept was able to accommodate 4,500 metric tons of paperboard into a 34,000 sq. ft space with a height of only 20 ft and a handling capacity of 300 metric tons an hour. Fire safety was ensured with sprinkler pipes fitted into the rack on each of the two levels. In addition, the chosen concept simplified the layout by minimizing the need for conveyor equipment to move rolls between the production lines, the new extruder and the central wrapping station, all this made possible through use of the new stacker crane.

    4. "TBA"
  70. Process Control (PC)

    PC7: Practical Uses of Web Inspection

    Session Chair: , Procemex Inc
    1. "Beyond Web Inspection and Monitoring Systems — Intelligent Cameras that Increase Papermaking Efficiency"
      Author: , Procemex Inc
      Author: , Procemex Inc

      Machine vision applications outside of the paper machine envelope have lagged significantly behind WMS/WIS camera applications. Mostly this is due to the heavy infrastructure required even for a single camera dedicated application when using regular machine vision cameras. Using intelligent cameras changes this completely. Dedicated single purpose applications become economically and technically viable when the whole application runs in the camera and does not require external computer to support it. This makes the system infrastructure lightweight and reduces the maintenance burden with related security issues that PC’s typically bring. If user interface is required for a dedicated application and web inspection or monitoring system is also based on intelligent cameras only the existing server and operator stations would be required for all the additional functions. Intelligent cameras allow for a very cost-effective system that starts at pulp slurry dirt counting going through analyzing defined process positions along with defect detection and web monitoring at the paper machine and ending with packaged rolls where the roll physical qualities and wrapping quality have been analyzed or format cut sheet products that are packaged or palletized. If pulp mill produces market pulp, then individual bale and transportation unit quality can also be analyzed. All of the application contribute towards more efficient production, better product quality and product safety.

    2. "Advances in Off the Shelf Camera Technology Provide Papermakers with Better Tools to Increase Paper Machine OEE"
      Speaker: , Event Capture Systems Inc

      Area Scan Cameras have been used to help papermaking operations decrease waste and delay and increase speed (realized capacity) since the mid-nineties. Advances in consumer grade cameras, computer hardware and software (cell phones and the gaming industry) continue to drive our industry by developing better camera sensors, imaging hardware and compression/decompression engines (CODEC). This translates into significant increases in the quality and quantity of pixels that provide the resolution operators require to solve downtime issues. This paper outlines these critical milestones and will help showcase to the paper maker what performance benefits they should be seeing on their existing and future installations of web monitoring and web inspection systems.

    3. "The Future is Full Web Dirt Analysis for Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard"
      Speaker: , ABB

      Currently, in many cases the quality evaluation of the product has been based on remote lab measurements or some other online measurement results, which typically are based on only small portions of the product area. Recently, ABB introduced new methods for analyzing very large numbers of target regions of a product in real-time and covering the measurement of the whole product area or web. These new methods and measurements allow pulp and paper manufacturers to: (1) monitor the overall quality factors of a product online, (2) react immediately to improve the product manufacturing process, (3) evaluate the product quality of the entire web, and (4) classify the manufactured product based on specific customer requirements. This means huge savings compared to cases where a partial measurement result is used for downgrading the product quality causing significant amounts of good quality product to be downgraded. In this paper we show how accurate dirt detection, imaging and classification all play a crucial role in quality control and process improvement for pulp and paper production. ABB’s Dirt Count Web Imaging system meets today’s demands for increased quality and runnability, with 100% inspection, reduced customer claims, increased markets and profitability.

  71. Papermaking Fundamentals (PF)

    PF5-IPPC7: Fundamentals of Water Removal

    1. "The Effect of Felt-Web Structure Interaction on Press Dryness Variability"
    2. "Unique Compression Behavior of Foam-Formed Sheets in Wet Pressing and Calendering"
    3. "Modelling of a Viscoelastic Compression Model for the Simulation of Mechanical Dewatering Processes"
    4. "Fundamental Understanding of Bound Water Removal in Paper Drying Process"
  72. Lunch/Exhibit

  73. PIMA Management (M)

    M10: Building Together the Bridge for Tomorrow’s Leaders

    Session Chair: , Fisher Arnold
    1. "TBA"
    2. "TBA"

      The Workforce Development Committee is proud to host an interactive workshop for young professionals and industry veterans to assemble and to level set around leadership. Through this learning process, our intent is to provide an experience enabling participants to self-reflect, assess, and grow their capabilities. Achieving leadership is not about ‘crossing the finish line’ but responding to the journey.

    3. "TBA"
    4. "TBA"
  74. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM8A: Dryer Section Optimization

    Session Chair: , International Paper
    1. "Paper Dryer Conversion from Rotary to Stationary Syphons"
      Speaker: , Kadant Johnson Systems
      Author: , Kadant Johnson

      This case study covers the conversion of a paper dryer from dual rotary syphons to cantilever stationary syphons on a containerboard machine with high drying rates. The existing syphon configuration had two large-perimeter, close-clearance, rotating syphons with the syphons positioned in the cross-machine position at the third-points. The replacement syphon configuration had a single stationary syphon, cantilevered from a rigidly mounted rotary steam joint with dryer bars covering the inside surface of the dryer cylinder. The paper covers in the impact on dryer surface temperature, blow-through flow rate, and cross-machine heat transfer uniformity.

    2. "To Steel or Not to Steel - Steel Dryers"
      Speaker: , Jacobs

      To Steel or Not to Steel – Steel Dryer Cans Whitney Owens - Jacobs Abstract In the pulp and paper industry, companies are continually looking for process improvements and ways to produce products at lower costs to improve the overall bottom line. These improvements can come in many forms, but for pulp and paper production, drying capacity and efficiency can heavily influence overall machine and mill production capacity. This paper evaluates the technological and energy advantages and disadvantages of using steel dryer cylinders as opposed to traditional cast iron dryer cylinders.

    3. "The Forgotten Dimension — Z Direction Drying Evaluation"
      Speaker: , Jacobs

      ABSTRACT Many times paper is simply thought of as a two dimensional object with the machine (MD) and cross (CD) directions getting most of the attention. Papermaking behaviors in the third dimension, the thickness (ZD), has been studied in the forming and pressing sections, but the drying section is often thought of as nothing more than a simple heat and mass transfer without thinking of the transient conditions in the sheet thickness. This paper investigates the heat and mass transfer in the Z direction through the dryer section and explains why thicker sheets (fluff pulp and heavy board grades for example) dry differently from the thinner paper grades.

  75. International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC)

    IPPC8: Converting and Formability of Paper and Board

    Session Chair: , Miami University
    1. "Extended Formability of Paperboard by Pre-Compression in Hydro-Based Deep-Drawing"
      Speaker: , Technische Universität Darmstadt
      Author: , Technische Universität Darmstadt

      The limited elongation potential restricts the plastic deformation of paper and its products. An extension of this limit would be necessary to substitute materials like plastics in several branches for example the packaging industry. A compression of paper materials prior to forming is one possibility to influence the material behavior. This was already mentioned in recent literature. In the article at hand the influence of compression pressures on the mechanical behavior and the micromechanical structure of a fresh fiber board are investigated. For this material it turned out that the lowest of three contact normal pressure levels is able to increase the strength as well as the extensibility of the specimens. Beyond this pressure level the maximum strain decreases in both directions of the material. Furthermore, the strength decreases in MD. These phenomena are substantiated with microscopic analyses of the fiber network. It is assumed that high compression levels lead to longitudinal cracks of the fiber walls. The findings can be used to design the processes of hydro-based deep-drawing processes with counter pressure.

    2. "Understanding Extensibility of Paper: Role of Fiber Elongation and Fiber Bonding"
      Speaker: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: Artem Kulachenko, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      Author: Ulrich Hirn, Graz University of Technology
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

      The tensile tests of individual bleached softwood kraft pulp fibers and sheets and modelling of similar fiber network suggest that only a part of the elongation potential of individual fibers is utilized in the elongation of sheet. The fiber bonding governs not only the strength but also the elongation of fiber networks. Elongation of paper can be promoted by improving fiber swelling, adhesion between wet and dry fibers and enabling shrinkage of fiber network. The measured strength and elongation of individual BSKP fibers ranged from 200 MPa to 1100 MPa, and from 8% to 32%, respectively. The elongation of restrained und unrestrained dried kraft pulp sheets ranged from 2% to 10%. HC refining increased kinks, dislocations and damage and decreased shape factor of fibers and therefore it had major influence on strength properties of the sheets, but still it had minor influence on the individual fibers. The results indicate that microcompressions and individual fiber extensibility play a smaller role in sheet extensibility than has been assumed. Unrestrained drying of BSKP fiber sheets in combination with increased fiber bond strength seemed to be a more promising approach for increasing the extensibility of paper sheet than increasing the elongation of individual fibers by refining. The measured tensile curves of individual fibers were applied in modelling of tensile curves of fiber networks. The modelling results indicated that the fiber elongation potential can be utilized only when the fibers are strongly bonded in the network. However, there may be an optimum level in the amount of bonding that yield the maximal elongation for the simulated fiber network.

    3. "On Characterizing Creasing Severity that Affects Reverse-Side Cracking"
      Speaker: , WestRock
      Author: , WestRock
      Author: Douglas Coffin, Miami University

      One of the objectives of creasing is to reach a target folding strength (relative crease strength, springback, % kill, etc) without damaging the surface of the paper. To facilitate this in production, creasing guidelines suggest the best tooling geometry to use for a given paper grade. The purpose of our research is to provide a stronger theoretical framework for describing creasing severity, which will enable calculation of the optimal tooling for an application. In previous work, we showed that the transverse shear strain best described the creasing severity that affects folding strength. Thus, the transverse shear strain to achieve a target RCS could be determined with one set of tooling, then transferred to any tooling combination. In this work, we investigate approaches to quantify the creasing severity that causes cracking on the reverse-side (bead-side of the crease) of the paper. A method to quantify reverse-side cracking was developed, which defines the cracking degree as the percent of the total creased length that shows cracks. Samples were creased with a range of rule and channel geometries. The cracking degree is typically below 1% at low crease penetration depths, then becomes exponentially higher beyond a critical depth. A rule and channel combo with a wider clearance shifts this critical depth to a larger value. The creasing draw converges the cracking degree data from different rule and channel combinations into a single curve. The creasing draw is derived from the same analytical expressions as the transverse shear strain and quantifies the relative length of paper that is drawn into the channel during creasing. The critical draw is defined as the draw at which cracking becomes greater than 5%, which corresponds with the point at which cracking becomes exponential. The critical draw then becomes a limit below which cracking will be minimal.

    4. "Deformation Dynamics in Creasing and Folding of Board"
      Speaker: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: , VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
      Author: Olli Suontausta, Metsä Board
      Author: Jukka Ketoja, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd

      Laboratory creasing and folding experiments, with dynamics similar to that of real production, were carried out to study cracking mechanisms of folding box boards. There have been several earlier attempts to understand the deformations and stresses in creasing and folding operations. These studies have been based mainly on finite element modelling of the board deformation, supported with visual inspection of the structural delamination of samples after the operations. According to modelling, strong temporal shear stresses near creased and folded regions dominate the delamination behavior of the board. Using high-speed CCD imaging with correlation analysis, we were able to confirm the existence of local shear strains in laboratory experiments for three double-coated board grades with varied strength and thickness. In addition to local strain rates, the development of delaminated area and accumulated volume change were followed. The measured strain rates were compared with theoretically estimated creep rates to obtain a rough estimate of the stress level required to achieve the maximal measured strain rate in each case. The cracking mechanisms depend on the extent by which creep deformations are able to re-distribute stresses during the very fast creasing and folding operations. In creasing, the shear strain near the edge of the rule dominated the deformation. However, there was a large variation in strain rates and thus stresses depending on the groove geometry and board grade. Small creasing deformations lead generally to large ones in folding. Thus, the creasing geometry should be chosen carefully according to the board grade, seeking for medium-level maximal strain rates (and stresses) in both operations.

  76. Papermaking Fundamentals (PF)

    PF6-PA8: Advances in Additive Technology

    1. "TBA"
    2. "Effect of Fiber Structure on Edge-Wicking in a Highly Sized Paper"
      Speaker: , WestRock
      Author: , WestRock
      Author: Peter Hart, WestRock

      Edge-wicking was studied on highly sized paper board samples. It was demonstrated that there is a sizing dosage level, at which, most of the fiber surface is protected. At this sizing dosage level, the edge-wicking mechanism is no longer predominately liquid migration through voids in the board structure. Instead, the freshly exposed fiber walls and lumens at the cut edge of the sheet facilitate liquid penetration and become the dominant mechanism of edge wicking. The correlation between fiber structure and edge-wicking behavior was highlighted in this work.

    3. "TBA"
  77. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PA8-PF6: Advances in Additive Technology

    Session Chair: , Bercen
    1. "TBA"
    2. "Effect of Fiber Structure on Edge-Wicking in a Highly Sized Paper"
      Speaker: , WestRock
      Author: , WestRock
      Author: Peter Hart, WestRock

      Edge-wicking was studied on highly sized paper board samples. It was demonstrated that there is a sizing dosage level, at which, most of the fiber surface is protected. At this sizing dosage level, the edge-wicking mechanism is no longer predominately liquid migration through voids in the board structure. Instead, the freshly exposed fiber walls and lumens at the cut edge of the sheet facilitate liquid penetration and become the dominant mechanism of edge wicking. The correlation between fiber structure and edge-wicking behavior was highlighted in this work.

    3. "TBA"
  78. Process Control (PC)

    PC8: Process Control Applications

    Session Chair: Michael Forbes, Honeywell International
    1. "Novel Methods to Reduce Cost and Improve Sheet Properties Using Advanced Microwave Water Measurement Technology"
      Speaker: , Crisitni NA

      Since the introduction of planar microwave technology in the year 2000, the number of instrument types and applications has grown substantially. A short introduction outlines the method of operation of planar microwave instruments and discusses the differences between this technology and other types of moisture measurement instruments. Additionally, the various types and applications for each type of instrument are described. Then a series of never-before published case studies are shown in detail with results quantified as follow: - Case Study 1 is of a Coated Board machine which was having issues with poor ply-bond. After installation of the proper types of instruments, the machine experienced a 15% improvement in ply-bond strength, while simultaneously reducing drive load in the forming section by 15%. Overall, this resulted in a 7-month ROI. - Case Study 2 describes a Kraft Liner machine with poor formation issues. After installation of the proper microwave instruments and accompanying trials, a 14% improvement in formation was measured, while noting a 315 kW/hr. reduction in drive load. This last improvement generated a 3-month ROI. - Case Study 3 involved a Test Liner Machine with ply-bond issues. As a result of having the correct instruments and a thorough trial plan, the machine produced a sheet with a 10% improvement in ply-bond (which resulted in a substantial reduction in starch usage) and an 11% reduction in drive load. These changes gave the mill a 7-month pay back. - Case Study 4 is another Test Liner machine looking to reduce sheet breaks and stabilize their process. In this case instruments were installed in both the forming and press sections. Based upon these measurements, the process of water removal was modified to have more water moving upward through the sheet. The final improvements also involved minor changes in both the wire and press fabric designs. In addition to the desired reduction in sheet breaks, a 20% reduction in drive load was captured, resulting in a 6-month ROI. A series of Conclusions drawn from these trials is presented to end the paper.

    2. "Understanding and Controlling Brightness Plus a Bit on Whiteness"
      Speaker: , Verso Corporation

      Few properties of white papers and paperboard, intended for printing, writing, or advertisement are as important as those of appearance - specifically brightness and whiteness. Yet, these attributes of white paper products are often not well understood. The purpose of this paper and presentation is to explain these properties in clear, distinct detail so that users can fully appreciate their value and limitations.

    3. "AC vs DC Coil Excitation Magnetic Flow Meters used in the Pulp & Paper Industry"
      Author: , ABB
      Speaker: , ABB

      Magnetic Flow Meters measure the flow of electrically conductive fluids found in all industries across the globe. AC-Coil Excited Magnetic Flow Meters were the first magnetic flow meters installed in Pulp & Paper mills going back to the late 1950's/early 1960's. With the introduction of the first DC-Coil Excited Magnetic Flow Meters in the mid 1970's, the DC meter soon became the dominant magnetic flow meter of choice. This presentation will discuss the merits of using AC or DC Coil Excitation Magnetic Flow Meters on typical Pulp & Paper applications. As many Pulp & Paper mills found out, not all applications are created equal. Simple water applications worked fined with DC-Excited meters but pulp stock applications were prone to noisy outputs which required excessive filtering and damping which slowed down the response time of the flow meter. AC-excited flow meters however provide an inherent noise-free signal which ensures stable process control, thereby improving plant output and efficiency. In offering nearly uninterrupted sampling of the flow signal, AC field technology is extremely well suited to measure pulsating flow, generated by piston pumps, diaphragm pumps or hose pumps. This makes the AC-Excited flow meter ideally suited for chemical feed systems within the mill. Flow meters working with DC field technology can only acquire pulsating flow data intermittently. We will review some of the problematic applications found in Pulp & Mills and the advantages of AC coil excitation over DC coil excitation.

  79. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM8B: Optimizing Paper Quality

    Session Chair: , Advanced Dynamics Corp
    1. "The Importance of Process Variability Reduction (PVR) in Reducing Manufacturing Costs and Improving Finished Quality"
      Speaker: , Verso Corporation
    2. "Optimizing Paper Roll Quality in MD and CD with Online Air Permeability Analysis and Paper Roll Hardness Measurement"
      Speaker: , ACA Systems
    3. "Paper Quality Management System"
      Speaker: , ISRA Surface Vision Inc

      Paper Inspection systems are a powerful tool for improving the quality of graphic paper, paperboard, pulp sheet, coated papers, and specialty grades. Some systems offer functionality beyond defect detection. The system can be setup to selectively detect and accurately classify a variety of paper and pulp imperfections such as holes, dirt, shives, stems, streaks, wrinkles, scratches, water spots, pits, dents, and contamination. Images of each defect are classified, stored, and displayed. Discrete defect information such as a reel map is provided for subsequent converting and defect trend information and repeat defect alarming is presented for process improvement and monitoring. Web Break Monitoring systems are reliant on consistent image excellence camera technology. Valuable web break monitoring cameras are a compact camera and LED illumination system designed specifically for 24/7 operation in the harshest areas on all paper machines. Quality web break monitoring camera systems offer superior imaging and are designed for low cost operation. Paper Inspection unified with Web Break Monitoring offer the paper maker an invaluable tool for understanding and continuously improving paper quality and paper machine performance. Additional value is created to the paper production improvement solution with the inclusion of rewind management/slitting optimization, trim overlay, and process controls integration. PQMS Key Capabilities â–º A system for accurate classification, roll grading and roll converting â–º A system to accurately identify the root cause of defects â–º A system that integrates with mill process data â–º A system to increase throughput at the Re-Winder/Slitter

  80. Break

  81. Papermaking Conversions (PM)

    PM9: Wrap-Up Roundtable: Setting the Pace Through Conversions and Optimizations

    Session Chair: , International Paper
    1. "Wrap-up Roundtable — Setting the Pace Through Conversions and Optimization"
      Speaker: , International Paper

      This closing session of PaperCon 2019 will review key points made during the sessions in the track on “Setting the Pace through Conversions and Optimization� and quotes of the week from the conference. We will then have a roundtable discussion with additional questions and areas to consider. Participants will be asked to share items they learned at the conference that they plan to implement when they get home.

  82. International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC)

    IPPC9: Role of Fines and Nanocellulose in Paper

    Session Chair: , Lodz University of Technology
    1. "Primary Fines and their Effect on Specific Refining Energy with Regard to Strength Development for Softwood Kraft Pulp"
      Speaker: , Graz University of Technology
      Author: , heinzl pulp, Zellstoff Pöls AG
      Author: Rene Eckhart, Graz University of Technology
      Author: Wolfgang Bauer, Graz University of Technology

      Besides the fiber fraction the so called fines fraction represents an essential component of any papermaking pulp with distinctive properties affecting both production process and product properties to a large extent. This fines fraction has received increasing interest in recent years and several research groups have experimented with either primary and/or secondary fines to assess their corresponding properties. When it comes to the influence of primary fines on paper and process, these studies do not always show consistent results. Our work has the target to clarify the influence of fines on paper and process parameters and focuses on the primary fines fraction of an unbleached softwood kraft pulp (Kappa number ~27). Primary fines are separated from the pulp using a laboratory pressure screen to be added again in controlled amounts afterwards. Thereby three pulp blends, showing a primary fines content of around 5%, 9% and 12% where prepared. These pulp blends were refined in a PFI mill at 1000, 4500 and 6000 revolutions. To avoid retention issues hand sheet are formed using white water recirculation on a Rapid-Köthen sheet former. The results of paper testing show that tensile index develops at lower specific refining energy when adding primary fines before refining due to increased densification of the sheets. The results also show increased dewatering resistance (Schopper-Riegler) at a given tensile index, while densification and air permeability (Gurley) are comparable at a given mechanical strength. Considering the linear relationship between tensile index and sheet density – independent of the fines content – it can be concluded that fibre flexibilisation and primary fines both enhance fibre-fibre bonding and that both strategies result in the same increase in mechanical strength with the downside of slightly reduced dewatering in case of the introduction of primary fines.

    2. "Combined Effect of the Morphology and Rate of Addition of Fine Cellulosic Materials Produced from Chemical Pulp on Paper Properties"
      Author: , Graz University of Technology
      Author: , Graz University of Technology
      Author: Armin Winter, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna
      Author: Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna
      Author: , Graz University of Technology
      Author: Rene Eckhart, Graz University of Technology
      Speaker: Wolfgang Bauer, Graz University of Technology

      With the diversity of products available on the market wiht potential use to enhance paper properties, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) became an attractive addditive, improving paper mechanical properties without any need of chemicals thanks to their intrinsic high mechanical strength along with good flexibility and high potential to interact with cellulosic fibres. MFC is produced from chemical pulp thanks to specific mechanical treatments. In this study, we produced and compared: (i) a mixture of primary and secondary fines isolated from the pulp by means of a purpose-built laboratory pressure screen; (ii) MFC-like materials obtained by refining and subsequent steps of high-pressure homogenization. Morphological properties were determined using flow cell based and microscopic techniques, evidencing a wide size distribution of the fibrillated materials produced. The thus obtained materials were then applied in handsheet forming in blends of different proportions to evaluate their influence on paper properties. All these products lead to a substantial decrease in air permeability and to improved mechanical properties already at low concentration, independent of the type and morphological character of the added fine cellulosic material. At higher addition rates, only highly fibrillated materials allowed a further considerable increase in tensile strength, which could be explained by the creation of a second network structure of highly fibrillated materials improving the load-bearing capacity of the whole paper structure. This study demonstrates the wide range of fibrillated additives achievable from the same pulp and highlight their potential to tailor paper properties. These observations should help to allow a more targeted application of this new generation of materials in papermaking, depending on the desired application.

    3. "Effect of Recycling on the Properties of Nanocellulose —Barrier and Mechanical Properties"
      Speaker: , Monash University
      Author: , Monash University
      Author: Humayun Nadeem, Monash University
      Author: Gil Garnier, Monash University
      Author: , Monash University

      Sustainable materials with outstanding barrier performance are required nowadays to replace the synthetic plastics where the recycling is challenging and odd to retain the barrier potential and its strength. Currently, the synthetic polymers in food, medical and pharmaceutical packaging are neither renewable nor biodegradable and are accumulating in the environment, damaging the eco-system. To combat this problem, nanocellulose could use as barrier materials and its low oxygen and reasonable water vapour permeability could be a potential alternative for synthetic polymers. Its effect of recyclability via standard protocol, on the properties of nanocellulose has not been reported. SEM micrograph reveals that the effect of recycling does not affect the fibre morphology and topography confirming no damage to the fibres. The average diameter of the nanocellulose was 69.8± 11.3 nm before recycling and 69.6± 12.6 nm after recycling with no increase in average fibre diameter. The SEM micrograph on virgin and recycled NC film showed no fibre observable fibre agglomeration after recycling. However the recycled NC films had higher film thickness and thus lower density than the virgin films, as well as worse optical uniformity at small length scales. The recycled films retained ˜70 % of the strength of the virgin films. Although the water vapour permeability (WVP) approximately doubled, increasing to 1.29 x 10-10 g.m-1.s-1 Pa-1, this was still comparable to synthetic polymer packaging materials such as PET, although it was significantly higher than Polyethylene(PE) and Polystyrene (PS). The recycling of NC films retains a significant amount of the films strength and barrier properties with a chemical free recycling process, providing a very attractive alternative for the packaging industry.

    4. "Summary of Conference/Closing"
  83. Process Control (PC)

    PC9: Pulp and Energy Optimization

    Session Chair: , International Paper
    1. "How Deep Learning is Used to Increase the Quality Control of Wood Chips by Classification"
      Speaker: , Event Capture Systems Inc

      The greatest expense to fully integrated papermills are the raw material wood chips that make up the slurry that later becomes paper at the reel of the machine. Random and off-line sampling of the chips provides less than .01% classification of the material. Chips that are off specification in size, wrong species or contaminated with bark and other foreign matter can greatly impact the subsequent paper making process. Additionally, vendors or internal suppliers that sell or provide these chips to the mill cannot be held to any penalty or feedback loop for supplying chips outside set quality standards. This paper discusses how camera-based imaging with deep learning (artificial intelligence) is used to provide real-time classification of wood chips on the conveyer line.

    2. "Improving Batch Digester Scheduling Efficiency and Pulp Quality using Advanced Process Control"
      Speaker: , ABB

      Batch cooking poses several operational challenges. The ability to produce consistent quality cooks at uniform production rates while ensuring optimal usage of steam depends on how well cooks hold to schedule. Thus, digester house scheduling, production rate control and steam management play a crucial role in ensuring steady operation and uniform production. The paper discusses challenges in batch digester operation while presenting methodologies for efficient scheduling, pulp quality control and steam leveling. These advanced control methodologies ensure efficient scheduling and tight kappa control while smoothing digester house steam flow. The efficacy and benefits of the methodologies are demonstrated via case studies.

    3. "Reducing Green House Gases in the Pulp and Paper Industry by Optimizing CHP Solutions"
      Speaker: , Solar Turbines Inc

      The Pulp and Paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide - Solar Turbines cogeneration plants and direct drying integrations are already helping its customers to reduce this share. An efficient operation is one of the most important and cost-effective means for the reduction of energy consumption as well as carbon dioxide emissions and a good opportunity to enhance the plant management, representing an actual instrument regarding the enterprise corporate communication concerning its environmental performance. The most common question is: how can I integrate my heat and power production following production loads, tariffs variations, incentives and load sharing opportunities to maximize cost saving while enhancing my competitiveness with the best respect to the environment? In this presentation, Solar Turbines will expose the new 8MW and 16MW range machine designed specifically for paper and tissue applications, equipped with intelligent ultra-low emission system, which aims at optimizing the cogeneration plant management by the full integration into the production system by the monitoring of external and internal parameters fully leveraging the industry 4.0 opportunity.

  84. Papermaking Additives (PA)

    PA9: Wrap-Up

    Session Chair: , WestRock
    1. "Additives Wrap-Up"